RESEARCH PAPER
Evaluation of mineral and vitamin intake in the diet of a sample of Polish population – baseline assessment from the prospective cohort ‘PONS’ study
 
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1
Department of Food Science and Dietetics, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Dietetics, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Social Medicine, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
4
Population Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
6
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, University Medical Centre, Trondheim, Norway
7
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland
8
European Health Inequalities Observatory, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(2):235–240
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Objective:
The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate selected mineral and vitamin intake of the Polish-Norwegian Study (PONS) participants.

Material and Methods:
Daily mineral and vitamin intake of PONS study participants was estimated using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Overall, 3,862 inhabitants of Świętokrzyskie Province aged 45-64 (2,572 females and 1,290 males) enrolled in the study.

Results:
Mean calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium intake were, in males: 660.6 mg/day, 15.4 mg/day, 218.5 mg/day, 889.3 mg/day, 2,453.4 mg/day and 2,571.5 mg/day, and in females: 703.6 mg/day, 13.9 mg/day, 220.8 mg/day, 916.3 mg/day, 2,497.3 mg/day and 2,301.8 mg/day, respectively. Iron and sodium intake was significantly higher in males compared to females. Calcium intake was lower in males than in females and in participants aged 55-64 then those aged 45-54. Estimated daily sodium intake was similar among individuals with and without hypertension. Mean vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6 A and E were, in males: 80.1 mg/day, 1.3 mg/day, 1.5 mg/day, 1.6 mg/day, 8,454.0 IU/day and 5.4 mg/day and in females: 83.7 mg/day, 1.1 mg/day, 1.6 mg/day, 1.6 mg/day, 9,494.6 IU/day and 4.9 mg/day, respectively. Females had a higher intake of vitamin C and A , while males had higher thiamin and vitamin E intakes. Higher daily vitamin C intake was observed in the younger than in the older group, and in participants with higher education than those with a lower level of education.

Conclusions:
Significant differences were observed in daily intake of some vitamins and minerals by gender, age, level of education, and place of residence. Some participants had a lower intake of some minerals and vitamins than Polish recommendations.

 
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