0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
REVIEW PAPER
 
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
 
 

Brucellosis in humans – etiology, diagnostics, clinical forms

 
1
Department of Allergology and Environmental Hazards, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Public Health, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2013;20(2):233–238
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Brucellosis in humans is a zoonosis of greatly varied clinical image. It occurs on all inhabited continents. The course of the disease may be acute, sub-acute or chronic. The etiologic factors of brucellosis are small, aerobic Gram-negative rods of the genus Brucella, which currently contains ten species: B. abortus, B. suis, B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. canis, B. neotomae, B. pinnipedialis, B. ceti, B. microti and B. inopinata. In humans, the disease is caused mainly by: B. melitensis as the most pathogenic species, followed by B. suis, whereas B. abortus is considered as the mildest type of brucellosis. The natural reservoir of the germ and the source of infection in humans are infected domestic animals, primarily cattle, sheep, goats, as well as wild animals. Infection in humans occurs by penetration through damaged skin, conjunctiva, and more rarely via the alimentary route by the consumption of infected products. Especially exposed are: veterinarians, veterinary technicians, insemination service employees, zoo technicians, farmers working on multi-herd farms (production cooperatives), e.g. cattlemen, also private farmers, employees of slaughter houses and meat processing enterprises. A basis for diagnosing brucellosis are serologic tests which allow the detection of antibodies occurring in response to infection, performed with the use of the following methods: agglutination test, complement fixation test, Coombs test, 2-mercaptoethanol agglutination test, and Burnet's intradermal allergy test which detects the state of hypersensitivity of the infected organism to Brucella abortus rods.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Elżbieta Monika Galińska   
Department of Allergology and Environmental Hazards, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
 
REFERENCES (50):
1. Al Dahouk S, Tomaso H, Nockler K, Neubauer H, Frangoulidis D. Laboratory-based diagnosis of brucellosis-a review of the literature. Part II: serological tests for brucellosis. Clin Lab. 2003; 49(11–12): 577–589.
2. Galińska EM. Badania serologiczne brucelozy ludzi w latach 1987–2010 na tle jej sytuacji epidemiologicznej w Polsce – próba analizy.(Serologic investigations of brucellosis in humans during the period 1987–2010 in Poland – an attempt of analysis) Rozprawa doktorska. Instytut Medycyny Wsi. Lublin 2012 (in Polish).
3. Łapiński TW, Wierzbicka I, Prokopowicz D, Kot A. Bruceloza u ludzi-nowe zagrożenia. (Brucellosis in humans – new risk). Med Wet 2001; 57(11): 800–802 (in Polish).
4. Czerwiński M. Bruceloza w 2005–2006 roku. (Brucellosis during the period 2005–2006). Przegl Epidemiol 2008; 62: 345–346 (in Polish).
5. Dziubek Z. Bruceloza w: Dziubek Z. (red.): Choroby zakaźne i pasożytnicze. (Infectious and parasitic diseases). PZWL Warszawa 1996; 137–139 (in Polish).
6. Bruce D. Note on the discovery of a microorganism in Malta fever. The Practicioner 1887; 39: 161–170.
7. Zagórski J. Choroby zawodowe i parazawodowe w rolnictwie. (Occupational and para-occupational diseases in agriculture. Monografie IMW Lublin 2000; ISBN 83–7090–064-X, 124–129 (in Polish).
8. Wachnik Z. Zarys chorób zakaźnych zwierząt. (Outline of animal infectious diseases) PWN. Warszawa 1983 (in Polish).
9. Jeżyna Cz. Bruceloza (Brucellosis) In: Boroń P. (ed.): Choroby odzwierzęce. PZWL. Warszawa 1983; 66–72 (in Polish).
10. Kassur B. Bruceloza. In: Kassur B. (ed.): Choroby zakaźne i inwazyjne. (Infectious and invasive diseases). PZWL Warszawa 1974; 162–171 (in Polish).
11. Tworek R, Serokowa D. Isolation of Brucella suis from a hare. Przeg Epidemiol 1956; 10(4): 369–370 (in Polish).
12. Iwaniak W, Pilaszek J, Szulowski K. Bruceloza psów. (Canine brucellosis) Med Wet 1999; 55(11): 718–722 (in Polish).
13. Carmichael LE. 19 th Ann. Meet. Brucellosis Res. Conf. Chicago, 1966.
14. Parnas J, Kruger W, Toeppich E. Die Brucellose des Menschen. Veb Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Berlin 1966.
15. Szulowski K, Murat J. Nowoczesne aspekty diagnostyki molekularnej brucelozy. (Modern aspects of molecular diagnostics of brucellosis) Med Wet 2008; 64(6): 741–744 (in Polish).
16. Boryczko Z, Furowicz A, Wilk G, Jakubowska L. Case of the contamination of ram semen with Brucella ovis. Med Wet 1985; 41(5): 296–297.
17. Bricker BJ, Ewalt DR, MacMillan AP., Foster G, Brew S. Molecular characterization of Brucella strains isolated from marine mammals. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 1258–1262.
18. Tryland M, Kleivane L, Alfredsson A, Kjeld M, Arnason A, Stuen S, et al. Evidence of Brucella infection in marine mammals in the North Atlantic Ocean. Vet Rec. 1999; 144(21): 588–592.
19. Foster G, Osterman BS, Godfroid J, Jacques I, Cloeckaert A. Brucella ceti sp. nov and Brucella pinnipedialis sp. nov. for Brucella strains with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007; 57: 2688–2693.
20. Nymo IH, Tryland M, Godfroid J. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) Vet Res. 2011; 42(1): 93.
21. Scholz HC, Hubalek Z, Sedlacek I, Vergnaud G, Tomaso H, Al Dahouk S, et al. Brucella microti sp. nov., isolated from the common vole Microtus arvalis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008; 58: 375–382.
22. Scholz HC, Hubalek Z, Nesvadbova J, Tomaso H, Vergnaud G, Le Fleche P, et al. Isolation of Brucella microti from soil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008; 14: 1316–1317.
23. Scholz HC, Hofer E, Vergnaud G, Le Fleche P, Whatmore AM, Al Dahouk S, et al. Isolation of Brucella microti from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, in lower Austria. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009; 9: 153–155.
24. Scholz HC, Nockler K, Gollner C, Bahn P, Vergnaud G, Tomaso H, et al. Brucella inopinata sp. nov., isolated from a breast implant infection. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.2010; 60: 801–808.
25. Bilecki Ś. Bruceloza zwierząt. (Animal brucellosis) PWRiL. Warszawa 1985 (in Polish).
26. Halling SM, Peterson-Burch BD, Bricker BJ, Zuerner RL, Quing Z, Li LL, et al. Completion of the genome sequence of the Brucella abortus and comparison to the highly similar genomes of Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. J Bacteriol. 2005; 187: 2715–2726.
27. Alton GG, Jones LM, Angus RD, Verger JM. Techniques for brucellosis laboratory. INRA Paris 1988.
28. Weiner M, Iwaniak W, Szulowski K. Identification of Brucella DNA in lymph tissue from deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boars (Susa scrofa) by the use of BCSP31 PCR and AMOS-PCR. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2009; 53: 609–612.
29. Baum M, Zamir O, Bergman-Rios R, Katz E, Beider Z, Cohen A, et al. Comparative evaluation of microagglutination test and serum agglutination test as supplementary diagnostic methods for brucellosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1995; 33: 2166–2170.
30. Saegerman C, VO T. K. O, De Vaele E, Gilson D, Bastin A, Dubray G, et al. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis by skin test: conditions for the test and evaluation of its performance. Vet Rec. 1999; 145(8): 214–218.
31. Young EJ. Serologic diagnosis of human brucellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13: 359–72.
32. Aliskan H. The value of culture and serological methods in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Mikrobiyol Bull. (Turkey) 2008; 423(1): 185–195.
33. Mantecon Mde L, Gutierrez MP, Zarrosa Mdei P, Fernandez-Lago L, Colmenero Jde D, Vircaino N, et al. Influence of brucellosis history on serological diagnosis and evolution of patients with acute brucellosis. J Infect. 2008; 57(5): 397–403.
34. Bilecki Ś, Dziubek Z, Grzybowski J. Odczyn hemaglutynacji biernej w przewlekłej brucelozie. (Passive hemagglutination reaction in chronic brucellosis) Przegl Epidemiol. 1977; XXXI, 3: 293–298 (in Polish).
35. Bilecki Ś, Dziubek Z, Osuch T. Odczyn immunofluorescencji pośredniej w diagnostyce serologicznej brucelozy u ludzi. (Indirect immunofluorescence test in serologic diagnostics of brucellosis in humans) Przegl Epidemiol 1971; 25: 63–71 (in Polish).
36. Stroczyńska-Sikorska M, Galińska E, Kłapeć T. Badania serologiczne ludzi w kierunku brucelozy. (Serologic examinations for brucellosis in humans) Med Środ. 2004; 7(2): 151–155 (in Polish).
37. Ministerstwo Rolnictwa. Departament Weterynarii: Przepisy o zwalczaniu brucelozy u zwierząt. (Regulations in the matter of brucellosis control in animals) PWRiL. Warszawa 1968 (in Polish).
38. Juszczyk J, Wolko K. Immunoglobuliny w brucelozie przewlekłej u ludzi. (Immunoglobulines in chronic brucellosis in humans) Przeg Epidemiol. 1974; XXVIII, 1: 29–33 (in Polish).
39. Galiński J, Królak M. Próba wykrywania niekompletnych przeciwciał anty-Brucella zmodyfikowaną metodą koaglutynacji. (Attempt of detecting incomplete anti-Brucella antibodies by modified coaglutination method) Przegl Epidemiol. 1983; XXXVII,3–4: 325–330 (in Polish).
40. Królak M, Stryszak A. Standardowa technika odczynu z 2-merkaptoetanolem (OME) w rozpoznawaniu brucelozy zwierząt. (Standard technique of 2-mercaptoethanol reaction in diagnosing brucellosis in animals) PIWET Puławy, 1979 (in Polish).
41. Stroczyńska- Sikorska M, Stojek N. Ocena wartości diagnostycznej odczynu aglutynacji z 2-merkaptoetanolem w rozpoznawaniu brucelozy u ludzi. (Assessment of the diagnostic value of agglutination reaction with 2-mercaptoethanol in humans) Wiad Lek. 1986; XXXIX(21): 1471–1478 (in Polish).
42. Parnas J. Próby ulepszenia techniki stosowania i sposobu interpretacji odczynu Burneta w brucelozie ludzi i zwierząt. (Attempts of improving the technique of application and way of interpreting Burnet’s reaction in humans and animals) Przegl Epidemiol 1958; 12(2): 151–155 (in Polish).
43. Juszczyk J. Patogeneza brucelozy. (Pathogenesis of brucellosis) Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1983; 70(7–8): 43–53 (in Polish).
44. Surocuoglu S, El S, Ural S, Gazi H, Kurutepe S, Taskiran P, et al. Evaluation of Real-Time PCR method for rapid diagnosis of Brucellosis with different clinical manifestation. Pol J Microbiol. 2009; 58(1): 15–19 (in Polish).
45. Dziubek Z. Następstwa zakażenia brucelozą u ludzi. (Consequences of Brucella infection in humans) Życie Wet. 1981; 56(10–12): 306–308 (in Polish).
46. Anusz Z. Zapobieganie i zwalczanie zawodowych chorób odzwierzęcych. (Prevention and control of occupational zoonoses) Wyd. ART. Olsztyn 1995 (in Polish).
47. Seroka D, Przybylska A. Bruceloza. (Brucellosis) In: Kostrzewski J, Magdzik W, Naruszewicz-Lesiuk D. (ed.): Choroby zakaźne i ich zwalczanie na ziemiach polskich (Infectious diseases and their control in the territory of Poland in the 20 th century) w XX wieku. PZWL. Warszawa 2001; 160–165 (in Polish).
48. Kamińska A, Szaflarski J. Badania serologiczne obsługi oborowej w kierunku brucelozy. (Serologic examinations of cattle tending employees for brucellosis) Med Wet. 1946; 5(7): 511–513 (in Polish).
49. Brzeski Z, Sodolski W. Ryzyko choroby zawodowej rolników w aspekcie narażeń środowiskowych na czynniki uciążliwie i szkodliwe (Risk of farmers’ occupational disease from the aspect of environmental exposure to noxious and hazardous factors) disewase In: Ocena ryzyka zawodowego w rolnictwie, ed. Buczaj A, Solecki L. IMW Lublin 2010; ISBN 978–83–7090–119–6, 337–344 (in Polish).
50. Brzeski Z, Sodolski W. Choroby zawodowe w rolnictwie w znowelizowanym wykazie z roku 2009 w aspekcie zagrożeń czynnikami biologicznymi (Occupational diseases in agriculture in the amended index of 2009 from the aspect of risk caused by biological factors) In: Zagrożenia czynnikami biologicznymi w rolnictwie – dotychczasowe i nowe problemy, ed. Stojek N, Solecki L. IMW Lublin 2011; ISBN 978-83-7090-123-3, 36-51 (in Polish).
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966