0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
RESEARCH PAPER
 
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
 
 

Application of the BPCQ questionnaire to assess pain management in selected types of cancer

Aleksandra Czerw 1  ,  
 
1
Public Health Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
2
Division of Cancer Prevention, Medical University of Warsaw and Department of Oncology and Hematology CSK MSWiA, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2016;23(4):677–682
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Pain is one of the most prevalent unpleasant sensation in people that may significantly lower the quality of life. More than a half of cancer patients suffer from various forms of pain, which becomes more frequent and intense as disease progresses.

Objective:
The objective of the study was to assess the degree of pain control in patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. The analysis also covered the effect of socio-economic factors on pain management in patients with the above types of cancer.

Material and Methods:
The study included 902 patients treated at the Outpatient's Department of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center - Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in 2013. The patients consisted of those diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal or prostate carcinoma. The Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique was applied. A questionnaire interview included demographic-type questions (socio-economic variables) and the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ) test which measures the power of factors influencing pain control in patients.

Results:
It was demonstrated that regarding beliefs in the source of pain control, patients attributed the highest importance to the power of doctors (mean value = 16.60) and the lowest to chance events (mean = 15.82). The internal factors are regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. With regards to the locus of pain control, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site.

Conclusions:
With regards to the source of pain management, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. The external factors were regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. The major socio-economic variables differentiating the way in which pain control is perceived are education and net income-per-household-member. The results of analyses of individual groups of patients revealled strong correlations between the beliefs in the doctors' influence, and the beliefs in chance events and socio-economic factors.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Aleksandra Czerw   
Public Health Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
 
REFERENCES:
1. Krajowy Rejestr Nowotworów, http://onkologia.org.pl/ (access: 12.03.2016).
  WWW
2. World Cancer Report 2008, http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/wcr/2008/wcr_2008.pdf (access: 12.03.2016).
  WWW
3. International Association for the Study of Pain, IASP Taxonomy http://www.iasp-pain.org/Education/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1698&navItemNumber=576#Pain (term: pain) (access: 20.07.2016).
  WWW
4. Juczyński J. Measurement tools in health promotion and psychology, Pracownia testów psychologicznych, Warszawa 2009: 165 (in Polish).
5. Turk DC, Monarch ES, Williams AD. Review Cancer patients in pain: considerations for assessing the whole person. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2002 Jun; 16(3): 511–525.
6. Misterska E, Jankowski R, Głowacki M. Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control. Med Sci Monit. 2013; 19: 1211–1220.
7. Tennant F, Hermann L. Intractable or chronic pain. West J Med. 2000; 173(5): 306.
8. Hilgier M, Jarosz J. Leczenie bólu u chorych na nowotwór – standardy i wytyczne. Terapia 2006; 11(86): 35–41.
9. Asqari A, Nicholas M. Pain self-efficacy beliefs and pain behavior. A prospective study. Pain 2001; 94(1): 85–100.
10. Skevington SM. A standardised scale to measure beliefs about controlling pain (BPCQ): a preliminary study. Psychol Health. 1990; 4: 221–232.
11. Nersesyan H, Slavin KV. Current approach to cancer pain management: Availability and implications of different treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2000; 3(3): 381.
12. Pharo GH, Zhou L. Review Pharmacologic management of cancer pain. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005; 105(11 Suppl 5): 21–28.
13. NCCN Practice Guidelines for Cancer Pain. Benedetti C, Brock C, Cleeland et al. National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology (Williston Park) 2000; 14(11A): 135–50.
14. Panchal SJ, Anghelescu DL, Benedetti C, et al. Adult cancer pain. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (version 2.2005), access: 20.12.2014).
15. World Health Organization. Cancer pain relief – with a guide to opioid availability -2 nd ed, Geneva 1996.
16. Noble B, Clark D, Meldrum M, et al. The measurement of pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005 Jan; 29(1): 14–21.
17. Petrie KJ, Jago LA, Devcich DA. The role of illness perceptions in patients with medical conditions. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007; 20:163–167.
18. Czerw A, Religioni U, Deptała A. Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer and coping strategies in breast cancer patients, Breast Cancer, DOI: 10.1007/s12282–015–0620–0.
19. Linton SJ, Shaw WS. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain. Phys Ther. 2011; 91(5): 700–711.
20. Czerw A, Religioni U, Deptała A, Fronczak A. Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer and coping strategies in prostate cancer patients. Arch Med Sci. 2016 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2016.58458.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966