RESEARCH PAPER
Across-shift changes in upper airways after exposure to bacterial cell wall components
 
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1
Depertment of Chemical, Aerosol and Biological Hazards, Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland
2
Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marcin Cyprowski   

Depertment of Chemical, Aerosol and Biological Hazards, Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701, Warsaw, Poland
 
KEYWORDS
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ABSTRACT
Introduction:
To assess the across-shift changes of cytokine concentrations in nasal lavage (NAL) samples were collected from workers exposed to bacterial cell wall components present in organic dust in three different occupational environments.

Material and methods:
The study was conducted in 38 employees including 10 workers from a municipal waste sorting plant (WSP), 20 from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and 8 from an office building (OB), who were established as a reference group, not exposed to organic dust. Interleukins 1β (IL-1β), 6 (IL-6), 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were examined in NAL before and after work shift on Wednesdays. Bioaerosol exposure was determined by personal measurements and analysed for organic dust, endotoxins (END) and peptidoglycans (PGN).

Results:
The analysis included the results for IL-8 only, because for the other cytokines their concentrations in 80% of cases were below the detection level. The most polluted were the workplaces in WSP with average concentrations of organic dust – 3.47 mg/m3, END – 96.31 ng/m3 and PGN – 571.88 ng/m3. The results of IL-8 showed a significant difference between the studied groups after the work shift (p=0.007). Among WSP workers concentrations of IL-8 increased also significantly (p=0.015) during the work shift. Multivariate analysis showed that organic dust and END were the factors that in the most distinct way (p<0.001) influenced changes of IL-8 levels in NAL.

Conclusions:
Each alteration in the composition of bioaerosols will probably determine the changes in the mechanisms responsible for both formation and modulation of inflammatory reactions in exposed workers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study is based on the results of Research Task No. II.P.17 carried out within the scope of the third stage of the National Programme “Improvement of safety and working conditions”, partly supported in 2014–2016 — within the scope of research and development — by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education/National Centre for Research and Development in Warsaw, Poland. The Central Institute for Labour Protection/National Research Institute is the main co-ordinator of the programme.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare they have no competing/con flicting interests in relation to the issues raised in this study.
FUNDING
This study is based on the results of Research Task No. II.P.17 carried out within the scope of the third stage of the National Programme “Improvement of safety and working conditions”, partly supported in 2014–2016 — within the scope of research and development — by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education/National Centre for Research and Development in Warsaw, Poland. The Central Institute for Labour Protection/National Research Institute is the main co-ordinator of the programme.
 
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