Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat flours in Guilan Province, northern Iran
More details
Hide details
Young Researchers and Elites Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(1):35–37
Introduction and objective:
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect wheat, corn, rice, oats, barley and other grains in the field or during storage. Guilan, Golestan and Mazandaran areas are located in the North Iran with favorite conditions for Fusarium growth. DON affects animal and human health causing vomiting, acute temporary nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever.

Material and Methods:
In this study, a total of 96 wheat flour samples of different types were collected during summer 2013 from six flour mills in Northern Iran. All samples were analyzed for DON by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

DON was detected in 80 out of 96 wheat flour samples (83.33%), at levels ranging from 23 to1270 µg/kg. The maximum contamination level of DON (1270 μg/kg) was found in whole flour while the minimum value (23 μg/kg) was registered in debranned flour. The mean of contamination was 630.53 µg/kg.

According to results obtained, incidence and contamination levels of DON, seem to be a serious problem for public health. Therefore, cereal and cereal based foods should be controlled for the presence of toxins, storage conditions and moisture content, which is considered a major factor in the growth of the Fusarium fungi.

The authors express their thanks the Young Researchers and Elites Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran, for their support in carrying out this study.
Richard JL. Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses-an overview. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007; 119: 3–10.
Sobrova P, Adam V, Vasatkova A, Beklova M, Zeman L, Kizek R. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity. Interdisc Toxicol. 2010; 3(3): 94–99.
Kushiro M. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat. Int J Mol Sci. 2008; 9: 2127–2145.
Ji F, Li H, Xu J, Shi J. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent-Assay for Deoxynivalenol (DON). Toxins. 2011; 3: 968–978.
Simsek S, Burgess K, Whitney K L, Gu Y, Qian SY. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat. Food Control 2012; 26: 287–292.
Shifrin VI, Anderson P. Trichothecene mycotoxins trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 13985–13992.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Guidance for Industry and FDA: Letter to State Agricultural Directors; State Feed Control Officials, and Food, Feed and Grain Trade Organizations, 1993 graingui.html (access: 2006.04.26).
Pinton P, Accensi F, Beauchamp E, Cossalter A, Callu P, Grosjean F, Oswald I. Ingestion of deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated feed alters the pig vaccinal immune responses. Toxicology Letters 2008; 177: 215–222.
Mirabolfathy M, Karami-osboo R. Deoxynivalenol and DON – Producing Fusarium graminearum isolates in wheat and barley crops in north and northwest areas of Iran. Iran J Plant Path. 2013; 48(4): 197–210.
Cortinovis C, Battini M, Caloni F. Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in Raw Feeds for Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2012; 32: 72–74.
Jajic I, Juric V, Abramovic B. First survey of deoxynivalenol occurrence in crops in Serbia. Food Control 2008: 19; 545–550.
Schollenberger M, Terry Jara H, Suchy S, Drochner W, Muller HM. Fusarium toxins in wheat flour collected in an area in southwest Germany. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2002; 72: 85–89.
Kuzdralinski A, Solarski E, Muszynski M. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone occurence in beers analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Food Control 2013; 29: 22–24.
Zhao H, Wang Y, Zou Y, Zhao M. Natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol in soy sauces consumed in China. Food Control 2013; 29: 71–75.
Osnaya LG, Cortes C, Soriano JM, Molto JC, Manes J. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in bread and pasta commercialised in Spain. Food Chemistry 2011; 124: 156–161.
Omurtag GZ, Beyoglu D. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in beer in Turkey detected by HPLC. Food Control 2007;18: 163–166.
Karami-Osboo R, Mirabolfathy M, Aliakbari F. Natural Deoxynivalenol Contamination of Corn Produced in Golestan and Moqan Areas in Iran. J Agr Sci Tech. 2010; 12: 233–239.
Ennouari A, Sanchis V, Marín S, Rahouti M, Zinedine A. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in durum wheat from Morocco. Food Control 2013; 32: 115–118.
Mishra S, Ansari KM, Dwivedi PD, Pandey HP, Das M. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in cereals and exposure risk assessment in Indian population. Food Control 2013; 30: 549–555.
Bensassi F, Zaied C, Abid S, Hajlaoui MR, Bacha H. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in durum wheat in Tunisia. Food Control 2010: 21; 281–285.
Setyabudi FMCS, Nuryono N, Wedhastri S, Mayer HK, Razzazi-Fazeli E. Limited survey of deoxynivalenol occurrence in maize kernels and maize-products collected from Indonesian retail market. Food Control 2012; 24: 123–127.