Introduction and objective:
Relief from routine physical tasks leads to increasingly sedentary behaviour (SB) – a risk factor for non-communicable chronic diseases. It is necessary to gather interdisciplinary knowledge about the possibilities of its reduction. The aim of the study is to analyse SB and its conditions among Polish white-collar and blue-collar workers.

Material and methods:
The study is based on data retrieved from a large-scale survey used to collect information on the physical activity of Polish society. The data were gathered on a representative sample of Poles at working age ≤69 years old in 2017 (n=2,131). The Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF) was used. Statistical inference was based on non-parametric (U-Mann Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis) tests.

The total average sitting time of the respondents was 1,958.5 min./week. White-collar workers are more likely (p 7.5 h/day (20.2% vs 9%), and blue-collar – ≤4.5 h/day (56.5% vs 42.1%). On a weekday, white-collar workers are sitting significantly longer. The bigger the place of residence, the longer the time sitting in both groups (p=0.000). The time of sitting on a non-working day does not differ among white-collar (221.4 min./day) and blue-collar workers (230.4 min./day). White-collar workers sit longer in vehicles (p <0.0001): 482.4 vs blue-collar workers 326.8 min./week.

The results suggest a change in Polish recommendations regarding the SB. Blue-collar and white-collar workers need support from the State policy in this matter and need guidance from pro-health programmes. It is necessary to intensify coherent, interdisciplinary and intersectoral activities aimed at creating environments that effectively counteract SB in the place of work and residence, especially in the larger agglomerations.

The study did not receive any financial support and the authors declare there are no conflicts of interests, nor were any studies with declared conflicts of interests taken into consideration.
ISCA/Cebr. The economic cost of physical inactivity in Europe; 2015.
WHO. Long working hours increasing deaths from heart disease and stroke: WHO, ILO. Geneva; 2021.
Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, Borodulin K, Buman MP, Cardon G, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020;54:1451–62. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955.
Biernat E, Piątkowska M. Leisure-time physical activity as a compensation for sedentary behaviour of professionally active population. Work. 2018;60:329–38. doi:10.3233/WOR-182727.
Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, et al. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet. 2016;388:1302–10. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30370-1.
López-Valenciano A, Mayo X, Liguori G, Copeland RJ, Lamb M, Jimenez A. Changes in sedentary behaviour in European Union adults between 2002 and 2017. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1206. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09293-1.
Smith L, McCourt O, Sawyer A, Ucci M, Marmot A, Wardle J, Fisher A. A review of occupational physical activity and sedentary behaviour correlates. Occup Med (Lond). 2016;66:185–92. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqv164.
O’Donoghue G, Perchoux C, Mensah K, Lakerveld J, van der Ploeg H, Bernaards C, et al. A systematic review of correlates of sedentary behaviour in adults aged 18–65 years: A socio-ecological approach. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:163. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2841-3.
Loyen A, van der Ploeg HP, Bauman A, Brug J, Lakerveld J. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149320.
Sugiyama T, Merom D, van der Ploeg HP, Corpuz G, Bauman A, Owen N. Prolonged sitting in cars: Prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends. Prev Med. 2012;55:315–8. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.07.026.
Park JH, Moon JH, Kim HJ, Kong MH, Oh YH. Sedentary Lifestyle: Overview of Updated Evidence of Potential Health Risks. Korean J Fam Med. 2020;41:365–73. doi:10.4082/kjfm.20.0165.
Compernolle S, Bourdeaudhuij I de, Cardon G, van Dyck D. Sex-specific typologies of older adults’ sedentary behaviors and their associations with health-related and socio-demographic factors: A latent profile analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21:66. doi:10.1186/s12877-021-02011-5.
Biernat E. International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Polish long version. Polish Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013;29:1–15. doi:10.5604/1232406X.1046801.
IPAQ. Guidelines for the data processing and analysis of the “International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Short and Long Forms. 2005. Accessed 7 Feb 2020.
WHO. WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2020.
Dempsey PC, Biddle SJH, Buman MP, Chastin S, Ekelund U, Friedenreich CM, et al. New global guidelines on sedentary behaviour and health for adults: Broadening the behavioural targets. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2020;17:151. doi:10.1186/s12966-020-01044-0.
Vlaams Insituut voor Gezondheidspromotie en ziektepreventie. Aanbevelingen voor beweging. Brussels.
Anses. Opinion of the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety on the “Updating of the PNNS guidelines: Revision of the guidelines relating to physical activity and sedentarity”. Maisons-Alfort; 2015.
Pfeifer K, Rütten A. Nationale Empfehlungen für Bewegung und Bewegungsförderung. [National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion]. Gesundheitswesen. 2017;79:S2-S3. doi:10.1055/s-0042-123346.
Department of Health and Social Care, Llwodraeth Cymru Welsh Government, Department of Health Northern Ireland and the Scottish Government. UK Chief Medical Officers’ Physical Activity Guidelines; 2019.
Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jerzego Kukuczki w Katowicach. Zalecenia aktywności fizycznej dla osób dorosłych w wieku 18–64 lat.; nd.
Biernat E, Piątkowska M. Individual and environmental factors determining sedentary lifestyle of the Polish population. Iran J Public Health. 2014;43:1033–44.
Milton K, Gale J, Stamatakis E, Bauman A. Trends in prolonged sitting time among European adults: 27 country analysis. Prev Med. 2015;77:11–6. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.04.016.
Ding C, Feng G, Yuan F, Gong W, Yao Y, Ma Y, et al. Temporal Trends and Recent Correlates in Sedentary Behaviors among Chinese Adults from 2002 to 2010–2012. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019. doi:10.3390/ijerph17010158.
Hadgraft NT, Lynch BM, Clark BK, Healy GN, Owen N, Dunstan DW. Excessive sitting at work and at home: Correlates of occupational sitting and TV viewing time in working adults. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:899. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2243-y.
Hadgraft NT, Healy GN, Owen N, Winkler EAH, Lynch BM, Sethi P, et al. Office workers’ objectively assessed total and prolonged sitting time: Individual-level correlates and worksite variations. Prev Med Rep. 2016;4:184–91. doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.06.011.
Biernat E, Buchholtz S, Bartkiewicz P. Motivations and barriers to bicycle commuting: Lessons from Poland. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2018;55:492–502. doi:10.1016/J.TRF.2018.03.024.
Dewitt S, Hall J, Smith L, Buckley JP, Biddle SJH, Mansfield L, Gardner B. Office workers’ experiences of attempts to reduce sitting-time: an exploratory, mixed-methods uncontrolled intervention pilot study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:819. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7196-0.
Rezende LFM, Sá TH, Mielke GI, Viscondi JYK, Rey-López JP, Garcia LMT. All-Cause Mortality Attributable to Sitting Time: Analysis of 54 Countries Worldwide. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51:253–63. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.01.022.
Clark BK, Sugiyama T, Healy GN, Salmon J, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, et al. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: The AusDiab study. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7:595–601. doi:10.1123/jpah.7.5.595.
Saidj M, Menai M, Charreire H, Weber C, Enaux C, Aadahl M, et al. Descriptive study of sedentary behaviours in 35,444 French working adults: Cross-sectional findings from the ACTI-Cités study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:379. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1711-8.
Czapiński, J., Panek, T. Social Diagnosis 2015. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Poland. Contemporary Economics. Quarterly of University of FInance and Management in Warsaw. 2015:1–538.
McDonnell MN, Hillier SL, Judd SE, Yuan Y, Hooker SP, Howard VJ. Association between television viewing time and risk of incident stroke in a general population: Results from the REGARDS study. Prev Med. 2016;87:1–5. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.013.
Bellettiere J, Carlson JA, Rosenberg D, Singhania A, Natarajan L, Berardi V, et al. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136161. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136161.
Rhodes RE, Mark RS, Temmel CP. Adult sedentary behavior: A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:e3–28. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.10.020.
Biernat E, Piątkowska M. Stay active for life: Physical activity across life stages. Clin Interv Aging. 2018;13:1341–52. doi:10.2147/CIA.S167131.
Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW. Too much sitting: The population health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38:105–13. doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e3181e373a2.
Biernat E, Skrok Ł, Majcherek D, Nałęcz H. Socioecological Profile of Active Adults. Sport as a Whole-life Choice. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research. 2020;85:59–76. doi:10.2478/pcssr-2020-0007.
Makowiec-Dąbrowska T. Wpływ aktywności fizycznej w pracy i życiu codziennym na układ krążenia [The influence of physical activity at work and in everyday life on the circulatory system]. Forum Med. Rodz;2012:130–8.
Pogorzelski K, Gromski M. Postawy względem samochodów, elektromobilności i car-sharingu. Wybrane wyniki badania przeprowadzonego dla Grupy ING przez IPSOS. Finansowy Barometr ING; 2018.
Khan S. Gendered Leisure: Are Women More Constrained in Travel For Leisure? Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism. 2011:105–21.
Rydin Y, Bleahu A, Davies M, Dávila JD, Friel S, Grandis G de, et al. Shaping cities for health: Complexity and the planning of urban environments in the 21st century. The Lancet. 2012;379:2079–108. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60435-8.
Li H, Zhang Y, Ao Y, Wang Y, Wang T, Chen Y. Built Environment Impacts on Rural Residents’ Daily Travel Satisfaction. Front Ecol Evol. 2022. doi:10.3389/fevo.2022.931118.