In the twentieth century, fumigation became a very popular method of disinfection, although in the same century many agents used as fumigants were withdrawn for ecological reasons. Fogging (fumigation) is a relatively new disinfection technology using dry fog, which behaves more like a gas and easily fills the sanitized space, reaching all surfaces in the room. The undoubted advantage of fumigation is the possibility of disinfecting difficult to clean areas. Fumigation has become particularly important in the twenty-first century due to procedures related to combating and preventing the spread of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

The aim of this review article is to summarize the current state of knowledge in the field of fumigation on the basis of past results of original research, taking into account new trends and possibilities of its application.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Due to the fact that fumigation is safe for apparatus, equipment, and electronics, while simultaneously enabling the highest possible bactericidal and virucidal levels, this method is widely used in various areas, both medical and non-medical. Fogging technology is used in the medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, as well as in transportation, for air fumigation or surface disinfection in closed spaces, such as hospital and laboratory rooms, incubators, refrigerators, ships, trucks, railway containers, and aircraft, to name only a few. The most common fumigants are hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, and their mechanism of action is related to their oxidizing properties.

Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid are highly effective and non-toxic fumigants that can be safely used for fogging laboratory and medical equipment, pharmaceutical facilities, hospital rooms, and animal breeding rooms.

We are grateful to Steven Snodgrass for editorial assistance. This work was supported by the Project entitled „National intersectoral doctoral studies at the Medical University of Bialystok” (POWR.03.02.00-00-I050/16) co-funded from European Union funds within the framework of European Social Fund as part of Knowledge Education Development 2014-2020 Operational Programme, through the grant no 01/MSD/2019.
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