Microflora and mycotoxin contamination in poultry feed mixtures from western Poland
More details
Hide details
Department of Food Quality Management, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Wood Technology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Corresponding author
Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska   

Department of Food Quality Management, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(1):30-35
Contamination of feeds with pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins constitutes a serious threat both for animals and humans. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of risk of the occurrence of microscopic fungi, selected bacteria and mycotoxins from the trichothecene group in poultry feeds in western Poland.

In feed mixtures, the concentration of ergosterol (ERG), being a specific quantitative biomarker for the content of microscopic fungi, was determined. Grower and finisher feeds were characterized by a higher count of bacteria and fungi in comparison to starter feeds. A considerable variation was found in the amount of ergosterol in analyzed feeds. Mean ergosterol content in feeds amounted to 19.34 mg/kg. The most common genera of fungi detected in the tested feeds included Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor Irrespective of the type of feed, the proportion of trichothecenes group B was five times higher than that of trichothecenes group A in relation to the total content of these mycotoxins in samples. In terms of the analyzed mycotoxins, feeds contained the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). A statistically significant correlation was shown between DON and ERG and between total trichothecenes and ERG.

Recorded results indicate that the level of microbiological contamination in feeds for broiler chickens produced in western Poland is within the requirements of the binding standards.

Creppy EE. Review article. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett 2002; 127:19-28.
Kwiatek K, Kukier E. Microbiological contamination of animal feed. Vet Med 2008; 64:24-26.
Krstanović V, Klapec T, Velić N, Milaković Z. Contamination of malt barley and wheat by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum from the crop years 2001-2003 in eastern Croatia. Microbiol Res 2005; 160:353-359.
D’Mello J, Placinta C, Macdonald A. Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1999; 80:183-205.
Egal S, Hounsa A, Gong Y, Turner P, Wild C, Hall A, Hell K, Cardwell K. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa. Int J Food Microbiol 2005; 104:215-224.
Kan C, Meijer G. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal food. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007; 133:84-108.
Krysińska-Traczyk E, Perkowski J, Dutkiewicz J. Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2007; 14: 159-167.
Morgavi DP, Riley RT. A historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feed contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007; 137:201-212.
Chełkowski J. Mycotoxins and toxin-forming fungi, as a significant indicator of food and feed quality. Pol Poultry 2008; 10:22-27 (in Polish).
Hussein H, Brasel J. Toxicity, metabolism and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology 2001; 167:101-134.
Binder E, Tan L, Chin L, Handl J, Richard J. Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007; 137:265-282.
Krysińska-Traczyk E, Kiecana I, Perkowski J, Dutkiewicz J. Levels of fungi and mycotoxin in samples of grain and grain dust collected on farms in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2001; 8: 269-274.
Pestka J. Deoxynivalenol: Toxicity, mechanism and animal health risk. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007; 137:283-298.
Perkowski J, Buśko M, Stuper K, Kostecki M, Matysiak A, Szwajkowska-Michałek L. Concentration of ergosterol in small-grained naturally contaminated and inoculated cereals. Biologia 2008; 63:542-547.
Arx JA. The genera of fungi sporulating in pure culture. Lehre Verlag J. Gramer, Germany, 1970.
Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH. Compendium of soil fungi. Academy Press, New York, Toronto, Sydney, San Francisco, 1980.
Nelson PE, Toussou TA, Marasas WFO. Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. University Park, USA, Pensylvania, State University Press, 1983.
Stuper K, Buśko M, Perkowski J. Development of chemical methods of fungal microflora content determination in areal products. Industrial Scientific and Didactic Equipment 2008; 4:68-74 (in Polish).
Maupetit P, Gatel F, Cahagnier B, Botorel G, Charlier M, Collet B, Dauvillier P, Laffiteau J, Roux G, Quantitative estimation of fungal infestation of feedstuffs by determining ergosterol content. 44 th Annual Meeting of EAAP; 16-19 1993; Aarthus, Denmark.
Müller HM, Schwardorf K. Ergosterol and fungal count in cereal by-products. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 1990; 64:215-219.
Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 7218:2008, Microbiology of food and feed – General requirements and principles of microbiological analyses.
Meister U. Fusarium toxins in cereals of integrated and organic cultivation from the Federal State of Brandenburg (Germany) harvested in the years 2000-2007. Mycotoxin Res 2009; 22:206-210.
European Commission (EC), Commission regulation (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards Fusarium toxins in maize and maize products. Official Journal of the European Union L255: 14-17 (2007).
Commission Recommendation of 17 August 2006 on the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 and fumonisins in products intended for animal feeding. Official Journal of the European Union L229/7(2006).
Dalcero A, Magnoli C, Luna M, Ancasi G, Reynoso MM, Chiacchiera S, Miazzo R, Palacio G. Mycoflora and naturally occurring mycotoxins in poultry feeds in Argentina. Mycopathologia 1998; 141:37-43.
Basalan M, Hismiogullari SE, Hismiogullari AA, Filazi A. Fungi and aflatoxin B 1 in horse and dog feeds in Western Turkey. Rev Méd Vét 2004; 5: 248-252.
Kwiatek K, Kukier E, Wasyl D, Hoszowski A. The microbiological quality of compound feedstuffs in Poland. Vet Med 2008; 64:949-954.
Kubizna J, Jamroz D, Kubizna JK. Contamination of feed mixtures with mycoflora in South-Western Poland. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 2011; 14,2.
Labuda R, Parich A, Berthiller F, Tančinová D. Incidence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia. Int J Food Microbiol 2005; 105:19-25.
Czerwiecki L, Czajkowska D, Witkowska-Gwiazdowska A. On ochratoxin A and fungal flora in Polish cereals from conventional and ecological farms, Part 1: Occurrence of ochratoxin A and fungi in cereals in 1997. Food Addit Contam 2002; 5:470-477.
Labuda R, Tančinová D. Fungi recovered from Slovakian poultry mixtures and their toxinogeneity. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006; 13:193-200.
Krnjaja V, Stojanović LJ, Cmiljanić R, Trenkovski S, Tomašević D. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi in poultry feed. Biotech Anim Husbandry 2008; 24:87-93.
Cŏnková E, Laciaková A, Štryiak I, Czerwiecki L, Wilczyńska G. Fungal contamination and the levels of mycotoxins (DON and OTA) in cereal samples from Poland and East Slovakia. Czech J Food Sci 2006; 24:33-40.
Grajewski J, Błajet-Kosicka A, Twarużek M, Kosicki R, Miklaszewska B. Results of long-term studies on mycotoxins in agricultural produce including feeds. Ind Feed 2009; 7/8/9:34-39 (in Polish).
Mille-Lindblom C, Wachenfeldt E, Tranvik L. Ergosterol as a measure of living fungal biomass: persistence in environmental samples after fungal death. J Microbiol Methods 2004; 59:253-262.
Seitz LM, Mohr HE, Burroughs R, Sauer DB. Ergosterol as an indicator of fungal invasion in grains. Cereal Chem 1979; 54:1207-1217.
Macri A, Schollenberger M, Dancea Z, Drochner W, Zearalenone and ergosterol contents in corn samples of Transylvania. Mycotoxin Res 2003; 19:190-193.
Maciorowski KG, Herdera P, Jones FT, Pillai SD, Ricke SC. Effects of poultry and livestock of feed contamination with bacteria and fungi. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007; 133:109-136.
Andreoletti O, Budka H, Buncic S, Colin P, Collins J, De Koeiejer A et al. Microbiological risk assessment in feedingstuffs for food-producing animals, Scientific opinion of the panel on biological hazards. The EFSA J 2008; 720:1-84.
Wiśniewska-Dmytrow H, Kozak A, Żmudzki J. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuffs from farms with husbandry problems. Bul Vet I Pulawy 2004; 48:117-122.
Bottalico A, Perrone G. Toxigenic fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with head blight in small-grain in Europe. Eur J Plant Pathol 2002; 108:611-624.
Perkowski J, Chełkowski J, Goliński P. Occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals, plants, foods and feeds in Poland. In: Logrieco A, Visconti A. An overview on toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in Europe. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 2004.p.161-172.
Slikova S, Sudyova V, Gregova E. Deoxynivalenol in wheat from growing areas of Europe. Cereal Res Commun 2008; 36:279-287.
Jakić-Dimić D, Nešić K, Petrović M. Mycotoxins in feed for pigs and poultry. Biotech Anim Husbandry 2009; 25:1149-1154.
The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASSF), The Heath and Consumers Directorate- General of the European Commission. Luxemburg Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, ISBN 978-92-79-08594-9: 20-23 (2009).
The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASSF), The Heath and Consumers Directorate- General of the European Commission. Luxemburg Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, ISBN 978-92-79-01104-0: 18-21 (2010).
Burek O, Wiśniewska-Dmytrow H, Żmudzki J. Assessment of feed contamination with mycotoxins: Diagnostic studies 2004 – 2009. Industrial Scientific and Didactic Equipment 2010; 4/5/6: 66-68 (in Polish).
Martins HM, Guerra MM, Bernardo F. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in mixed-feed for laying hens. Mycotoxin Res 2006; 22:206-210.
Wiśniewska H, Buśko M. Evaluation of spring wheat resistance to Fusarium seedling blight and wheat blight. Biologia 2005; 60:287-293.
Stuper K, Buśko M, Matysiak A, Perkowski J, Contamination with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in cereals harvested in the Wielkopolska region, Poland. Industrial Scientific and Didactic Equipment 2010; 4:89-96 (in Polish).
Costa P, Oliveira M, Bica A, Vaz-Pires P, Bernardo F. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from poultry feed and feed ingredients. Vet Microbiol 2007; 120:122-131.
Vlachou S, Zoiopoulos E, Drosinos EH. Assessment of some hygienic parameters of animal feeds in Greece. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004; 117:331-337.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top