Fungal diversity and Aspergillus in hospital environments
More details
Hide details
Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, México
División de Investigación, Hospital Juárez de México. Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México
Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Unidad de Investigación, Instituto de Oftalmología “Fundación de Asistencia Privada Conde de Valenciana, IAP”, México
Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Mexico
Departamento el Hombre y su Ambiente, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, México
Corresponding author
María del Rocío Reyes-Montes   

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(2):264-269
Introduction and objective:
Nosocomial invasive fungal infections, particularly aspergillosis, are an increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. The presented study evaluates fungal diversity and the presence of Aspergillusin air samples from two hospitals.

Material and Methods:
Over the course of one year (rainy and dry seasons), the air was sampled from three areas in two hospitals (1 and 2) using a single-stage Andersen viable particle sampler (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The fungi were identified by macro- and micromorphology, and the number of colony forming units (CFU)/m3 air and their richness, abundance, and diversity were determined. Isolates Aspergillus genus were characterized by their thermotolerance.

The CFU/m3 air was similar at both hospitals during the two seasons, but different between the sampled areas. Results showed 10 fungal genera for hospital 1, and 8 for hospital 2. The most abundant were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. The thermotolerance test confirmed the identification of A. fumigatus section Fumigati. The highest growth rate was found in Aspergillus section Nigri.

Determining the fungal diversity in the two hospitals was important because all the species have the potential to be pathogenic, especially the section Fumigati.

Fernstrom A, Goldblatt M. Aerobiology and its role in the transmission of infectious diseases. J Pathol. 2013; 2013: 1-C13.
Durugbo EU, Kajero AO, Omoregie EI, Oyejide NE. A survey of outdoor and indoor airborne fungal spora in the Redemption City, Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. Aerobiologia. 2013; 29(2): 201–216.
Menezes EA, Trindade ECP, Costa MM, Freire CCF, Cavalcante MS, Cunha F. Airborne fungi isolated from Fortaleza City, State of Ceara, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004; 46(3): 133–137.
Kasprzyk I. Aeromycology – main research fields of interest during the last 25 years. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008; 15(1): 1–7.
Srikanth P, Sudharsanam S, Steinberg R. Bio-aerosols in indoor environment: Composition, health effects and analysis. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008; 26(4): 302–312.
Sen B, Asan A. Fungal flora in indoor and outdoor air of different residential houses in Tekirdag City (Turkey): seasonal distribution and relationship with climatic factors. Environ Monit Assess. 2009; 151(1–4): 209–219.
Simon-Nobbe B, Denk U, Pöll V, Rid R, Breitenbach M. The spectrum of fungal allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008; 145(1): 58–86.
Hedayati MT, Mayahi S, Aghili R, Goharimoghadam K. Airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor of asthmatic patients’ home, living in the city of Sari. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005; 4(4): 189–191.
Lentino JR, Rosenkranz MA, Michaels JA, Kurup VP, Rose HD, Rytel MW. Nosocomial aspergillosis: a retrospective review of airborne disease secondary to road construction and contaminated air conditioners. Am J Epidemiol. 1982; 116(3): 430–437.
Vonberg RP, Gastmeier P. Nosocomial aspergillosis in outbreak settings. J Hosp Infect. 2006; 63(3): 246–254.
Sepahvand A, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Allameh A, Razzaghi-Abyaneh M. Diversity and distribution patterns of airborne microfungi in indoor and outdoor hospital environments in Khorramabad, Southwest Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(2): 86–192.
Guarro J. Taxonomía y biología de los hongos causantes de infección en humanos. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012; 30(1): 33–39.
de Ana SG, Torres-Rodríguez JM, Ramírez EA, García SM, Belmonte-Soler J. Seasonal distribution of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium species isolated in homes of fungal allergic patients. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006; 16(6): 357–363.
Mobin M, do Amparo Salmito M. Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006; 39(6): 556–559.
Cárdenas MX, Cortes JA, Parra CM. Aspergillus spp. in risk areas of transplant patients in a university hospital. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2008; 25(4): 232–236.
Eames I, Tang JW, Li Y, Wilson P. Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals. J R Soc Interface. 2009; 6(Suppl 6): S697–S702.
Kim KY, Kim YS, Kim D. Distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in the general hospitals of Korea. Ind Health. 2010; 48(2): 236–243.
Augustowska M, Dutkiewicz J. Variability of airborne microflora in a hospital ward within a period of one year. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006; 13(1): 99–106.
Perdelli F, Cristina ML, Spagnolo AM, Dallera M, Ottria G, Lombardi R, Grimaldi M, Orlando P. Fungal contamination in hospital environments. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006; 27(1): 44–47.
Faure O, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Lebeau B, Mallaret MR, Ambroise-Thomas P, Grillot R. Eight-year surveillance of environmental fungal contamination in hospital operating rooms and haematological units. J Hosp Infect. 2002; 50(2): 155–160.
Fox BC, Chamberlin L, Kulich P, Rae EJ, Webster LR. Heavy contamination of operating room air by Penicillium species: Identification of the source and attempts at decontamination. Am J Infect Control. 1990; 18(5): 300–306.
Panagopoulou P, Filioti J, Farmaki E, Maloukou A, Roilides E. Filamentous fungi in a tertiary care hospital: environmental surveillance and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007; 28(1): 60–67.
Clark TA, Hajjeh RA. Recent trends in the epidemiology of invasive mycoses. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2002; 15(6): 569–574.
Denning DW. Invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998; 26(4):781–803.25. Martino R, Subira M. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends. Ann Hematol. 2002; 81(5): 233–243.
Martino R, Subira M. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends. Ann Hematol. 2002; 81(5): 233–24.
Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34(1): 909–917.
Winkelstein JA, Marino MC, Johnston RB, Boyle J, Curnutte J, Gallin JI, Malech HL, Holland SM, Ochs H, Quie P, Buckley RH, Foster CB, Chanock SJ, Dickler H. Chronic granulomatous disease: report on a national registry of 368 patients. Medicine. 2000; 79(3): 155–169.
De Rosa FG, Shaz D, Campagna AC, Dellaripa PE, Khettry U, Craven DE. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis soon after therapy with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha–neutralizing antibody: a possible healthcare-associated case? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003; 24(7): 477–482.
Andersen Viable Particle Sampler, Thermo Electron Corporation. Environmental Instruments. Series 10–800. Single Stage Viable Sampler. Instruction manual P/N 100074–00. Massachusetts, USA: Thermo Electron Corporation, 2003.p. 13.
Ridell R. Permanent stained micological preparations obtained by slide culture. Mycology. 1950; 42(2): 265–270.
Raper KB, Fennel DI. The genus Aspergillus. Williams and Wilkins (Baltimore, MD, USA) Publisher, 1965.
Frías De León MG, Zavala-Ramírez M, Córdoba S, Zúñiga G, Duarte-Escalante E, Pérez-Torres A, Zepeda-Rodríguez A, López-Martínez I, Buitrago MJ, Reyes-Montes MR. Phenotypic characteristics of isolates of A. fumigatus from different geographic origins and their relationships with genotypic characteristic. BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11: 116.
Baranyi J, Roberts TA. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. Int J Food Microbiol. 1994; 23(3–4): 277–294.
Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST, Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electronica. 2001; 4(1):1–9.
Pemán J, Salavert M. Epidemiology and prevention of nosocomial invasive infections by filamentous fungi and yeasts. Enferm Infec Microbiol Clin. 2013; 31(5): 328–341.
Martins-Diniz JN, da Silva RA, Miranda ET, Mendes-Giannini MJ. Monitoring of airborne fungus and yeast species in a hospital unit. Rev Saude Publica. 2005; 39(3): 398–405.
Cordeiro RA, Brilhante RS, Pantoja LD, Moreira Filho RE, Vieira PR, Rocha MF, Monteiro AJ, Sidrim JJ. Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010; 14(1): 30–34.
Ríos-Yuil JM, Arenas R, Fernández R, Calderón-Ezquerro M, Rodriguez-Badillo R. Aeromycological study at the intensive care unit of the “Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez” General Hospital. Braz J Infect Dis. 2012; 16(5): 432–435.
Hao ZF, Ao JH, Hao F, Yang Rong-ya RY, Zhu H, Zhang J. Environment surveillance of filamentous fungi in two tertiary care hospitals in China . Chin Med J (Engl). 2011; 124(13): 1970–1975.
Azimi F, Naddafi K , Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS, Alimohammadi M, Afhami S , Musavi SN. Fungal air quality in hospital rooms: a case study in Tehran, Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2013; 11(1): 30.
Warris A, Voss A, Verweij PE. Hospital sources of Aspergillus: New routes of transmission? Rev Iberoam Micol. 2001; 18(4): 156–162.
Hoseinzadeh E, Reza Samarghandie M, Ghiasian SA, Alikhani MY, Roshanaie G. Evaluation of bioaerosols in five educational hospitals wards air in Hamedan, during 2011–2012. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(6): e10704.
Abad A, Fernández-Molina JV, Bikandi J, Ramírez A, Margareto J, Sendino J, Hernando FL, Pontón J, Garaizar J, Rementeria A. What makes Aspergillus fumigatus a successful pathogen? Genes and molecules involved in invasive aspergillosis. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010; 27(4):155–182.
Bayry J, Aimanianda V, Guijarro JI, Sunde M, Latgé JP. Hydrophobins-unique fungal proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(5): 1–4.
Kwon-Chung KJ, Sugui JA. Aspergillus fumigatus-What makes the species a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen? PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(12): 1–4.
Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, infection control, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2011; 25(1): 201–225.
Licorish K, Novey HS, Kozak P, Fairshter RD, Wilson AF. Role of Alternaria and Penicillium spores in the pathogenesis of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985; 76(6): 819–825.
Chen BY, Chao HJ, Wu CF, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL. High ambient Cladosporium spores were associated with reduced lung function in schoolchildren in a longitudinal study. Sci Total Environ. 2014; 481: 370–376.
Balajee SA, Houbraken J, Verweij PE, Hong S-B, Yaghuchi T, Varga J, Samson RA. Aspergillus species identification in the clinical setting . Stud Mycol. 2007; 59: 39–46.
Ryckeboer J, Mergaert J, Coosemans J, Deprins K, Swings J. Microbiological aspects of biowaste during composting in a monitored compost bin. J Appl Microbiol. 2003; 94(1): 127–137.
Maheshwari R, Bharadwaj G, Bhat MK. Thermophilic fungi: their physiology and enzymes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000; 64(3): 461–488.
Araujo R, Gonçalves-Rodrigues A. Variability of germinative potential among pathogenic species of Aspergillus. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(9): 4335–4337.
Marín S, Sanchis V, Sáenz R, Ramos AJ, Vinas I, Magan N. Ecological determinants for germination and growth of some Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. from maize grain. J Appl Microbiol. 1998; 84(1): 25–36.
Rüping MJGT, Gerlach S, Fischer G, Lass-Flörl C, Hellmich M, Vehreschild JJ, Cornely OA. Environmental and clinical epidemiology of Aspergillus terreus: data from a prospective surveillance study. J Hosp Infect. 2011; 78(3): 226–230.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top