Contamination of public squares and parks with parasites in Erbil city, Iraq
More details
Hide details
Department of Biology, College of Education, Salahaddin University – Erbil, Iraq
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(3):418-420
Introduction and objective:
The soil of public squares and parks may be contaminated with the infective stages of parasites because of the presence of stray animals in these parks. Many people take a rest in these places and they may be at risk of infection with parasites because the infective stages of parasites can survive for months, or even years, in spite of the factors of weather. Objective. To evaluate contamination with the eggs of parasites in the soil of parks in Erbil city, Iraq.

Material and Methods:
Forty-eight soil samples were collected from 12 public parks and gardens from 11 different neighbourhoods (8 parks and 3 playgrounds) and one district in Erbil city. The zinc sulfate floatation method was used to recover the eggs of parasites from the samples.

Eggs of parasites were identified in 91.6% of the parks. Eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta were found in 75%, Toxocaraspp. in 50%, Ascaris spp. in 33.3%, Taenia spp. in 25%, hookworm in 25%, Trichostrongylus spp. in 16.7% and Trichuris spp. in 16.7% of the parks. Helminth eggs were found in 48% soil samples with a mean number of 1.1 per soil sample. The most contaminated soil sample was found in a park in neighbourhood number 325 with 6 eggs.

The presence of pathogenic parasites in the soil of parks in Erbil city constitutes a high risk to the people who use these parks for recreation, and requires the appropriate control for these parasites.

Zenner L, Gounel JM, Chauve CM. A standardized method for detecting parasite eggs and oocysts in soils. Revue Méd Vét. 2002; 153(11): 729–734.
Rubel D, Wisnivesky C. Magnitude and distribution of canine fecal contamination and helminth eggs in two areas of different urban structure, Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 133(4): 339–347.
Martínez-Moreno FJ, Hernández S, López-Cobos E, Becerra C, Acosta I, Martínez-Moreno A. Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Córdoba (Spain) and their risk to public health. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 143(1): 7–13.
Marques JP, Guimarães Cde R, Boas AV, Carnaúba PU. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2012; 54(5): 267–271.
Stojčević D, Sušić V, Lučinger S. Contamination of soil and sand with parasite elements as a risk factor for human health in public parks and playgrounds in Pula, Croatia. Vet Arhiv. 2010; 80(6): 733–742.
Toledo Seco CI, de Armas Hernández F, del Castillo Remiro A, Arévalo Morales P, Piñero Barroso JE, Valladares Hernández B. Parasite contamination of parks and gardens as a public health problem. Data of the Island of Tenerife. Rev Sanid Hig Pública. 1994; 68(5–6): 617–622.
Ruiz de Ibañez MR, Garijo MM, Alonso FD. Prevalence and viability of eggs of Toxocara spp. and Toxascaris leonina in public parks in eastern Spain. J Helminthol. 2001; 75(2): 169–173.
Dado D, Izquierdo F, Vera O, Montoya A, Mateo M, Fenoy S, et al. Detection of Zoonotic Intestinal Parasites in Public Parks of Spain. Potential Epidemiological Role of Microsporidia. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012; 59(1): 23–28.
Motazedian H, Mehrabani D, Tabatabaee SH, Pakniat A, Tavalali M. Prevalence of helminth ova in soil samples from public places in Shiraz. East Mediterr Health J. 2006; 12(5): 562–565.
Tavalla M, Oormazdi H, Akhlaghi L, Razmjou E, Moradi Lakeh M, Shojaee S, et al. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012; 11(20): 4575–4578.
Tiyo R, Guedes TA, Falavigna DL, Falavigna-Guilherme AL. Seasonal contamination of public squares and lawns by parasites with zoonotic potential in southern Brazil. J Helminthol. 2008; 82(1): 1–6.
Molan AL, Hussein MM, Jasin BA. A general survey of intestinal helminths of some rodents in Arbil area. Iraqi J Agric Sci. 1988; 6(2): 69–79.
Guirges SY. Intestinal parasites in patients attending medical city teaching hospital in Baghdad. Al-Mustansiriya J Sci. 2006; 17(4): 1–10.
Zibaei M, Abdollahpour F, Birjandi M, Firoozeh F. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks from three areas of Khorram Abad, Iran. Nepal Med Coll J. 2010; 12(2): 63–65.
Gurel FS, Ertug S, Okyay P. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks of the city of Aydin, Turkey. Turk Parasitol Derg. 2005; 29(3): 177–179.
Dubna S, Langrova I, Jankovska I, Vadlejch J, Pekár S, Nápravník J, et al. Contamination of soil with Toxocara eggs in urban (Prague) and rural areas in the Czech Republic. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 144(1–2): 81–86.
Al-Khushali MN. Prevalence of zoonotic parasites in stray cats in Baghdad. Iraqi Postgrad Med J. 2007; 6(2): 152–156.
Shrestha A, Rai SK, Basnyat SR, Rai CK, Shakya B. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Kathmandu, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2007; 9(3): 166–169.
Gyorkos TW, Kokoskin-Nelson E, Maclean JD, Soto JC. Parasite contamination of sand and soil from daycare sandboxes and play areas. Can J Infect Dis. 1994; 5(1): 17–20.
Gallina T, Silva MA, Castro LL, Wendt EW, Villela MM, Berne ME. Presence of eggs of Toxocara spp. and hookworms in a student environment in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2011; 20(2): 176–7.
Rocha S, Pinto RM, Floriano AP, Teixeira LH, Bassili B, Martinez A, et al. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2011; 53(5): 277–281.
Bojar H, Kłapeć T. Contamination of soil with eggs of geohelminths in recreational areas in the Lublin region of Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(2): 267–270.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top