Introduction and objective:
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxin contaminants of cereals and cereal products that pose a significant threat to food safety. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DON and ZEA in different organic and conventional unprocessed cereals and cereal products that are available on the Polish agricultural fields and market. A total of 78 unprocessed cereal and cereal product samples of organic and conventional production were sampled from agricultural fields situated in western Poland and from available on the Polish market packaged comercial products produced by different domestic manufacturers. All samples were analyzed for DON and ZEA by HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

Results. Co-occurrence of DON was detected in cereals from the organic production system, the average content was 285.25 ± 134,04 μg kg -1 and from the conventional system – 373.71 ± 171,20 μg kg -1 , In flour from organic farming, the average DON content was 213.80 ± 151,28 μg kg -1, in conventional flour the average was 336.29 ± 188,90 μg kg -1. The range of DON concentrations in samples of cereal products from organic and conventional farms was detected in 26.3% and 31.6%, whereas the average concentrations of DON in cereal products was 199.60 ± 149.82 μg kg -1 and 387.67 ± 250.24 μg kg -1, respectively.

Mycotoxins contamination seen in organic cereals and cereal products does not statistical differ from that witnessed in their conventional counterparts.

Mruczyk K, Mizgier M, Wójciak RW, Cisek-Woźniak A. Comparison of deoxynivalenol and zearaleone concentration in conventional and organic cereal products in western Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2021; 28(1): 44–48. doi: 10.26444/aaem/116417
JECFA, 2002. Evaluation of Certain Mycotoxins in Food: Fifty-sixth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No 906. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
GEMS/Food-Euro. Reliable evaluation of low-level contamination of food, Report on workshop in the frame of GEMS/Food-Euro. Kulmbach (26–27 May 1995) (Germany): GEMS/Food-Euro, 1995, pp. 1–8.
Sirot V, Fremy JM, Leblanc JC. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second French total diet study. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013; 52: 8481–11.
Brodal G, Hofgaard IS, Eriksen GS, Bernhoft A, Sundheim L Mycotoxins in organically versus conventionally produced cereal grains and some other crops in temperate regions. World Mycotox J. 2016; 9: 755–770.
Galtier P, Loisaeu N, Oswald I, Paule Puel O. Toxicologie des mycotoxines: dangers et risques en alimentation humaine et animale [toxicology of mycotoxins: hazards and risks in human and animal food]. Academie veterinaire Veterinaire de France 2006; 59: 5–13.
Richard JL, Payne GA Desjardin AE, Maragos C, Norred WP, Pestka JJ, Philips TD, Van Egmond HP, Vardon PJ, Whitaker TB, Wood G. Mycotoxins Risks in Plant, Animal and Human Systems. CAST Task Force Report 139. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2003, pp. 1–217.
Diaz DE. Mycotoxin Blue Book. Nottingham University Press, Thrumpton, Nottingham, UK. 2005 , 349 pp.
Weidenborner M. Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs. Springer, New York, 2008, pp. 1–503.
Withanage GS, Murata H, Koyama T, Ishiwata I. Agonistic and antagonistic effect of zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin, on SKN, HHUA, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001; 43: 6–10.
Council Regulation 834 (2007) /EC of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. Off J Eur Union L189: 1–23.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 401 (2006) of 23 February 2006 laying down themethods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L70: 12–34.
Commission Regulation 889 (2008) EC of 5 September 2008 layingdown detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Off J Eur Union L250: 1–115.
Juan C, Moltó JC, Lino CM, Mañes J Determination of ochratoxin A in organic and non-organic cereals and cereal products from Spain and Portugal. Food Chem. 2008; 107: 525–530.
Pussemier L, Pierard JY, Anselme M, Tagni EK, Motte JC, Larondelle Y. Development and application of analyticalmethods for the determination of mycotoxins in organic and conventional wheat. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006; 23: 1208–1218.
Bernhoft A, Clasen PE, Kristoffersen AB, Torp M. Less Fusarium infestation and mycotoxin contamination in organic than in conventional cereals. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A. 2010; 27: 842–852.
Gimenez I, Escobar J, Ferruz E, Loran S, Herrera M, Juan T, Herrera A, Arino A. The effect of weather and agronomic practice on deoxynivalenol mycotoxin in durum wheat. J Life Sci. 2012; 6: 513–517.
Quaranta F, Amoriello T, Aureli G, Belocchi A, D’Egidio, MG, Fornara M, Melloni S, Desiderio E. Grain yield, quality and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): results of national networks in organic and conventional cropping systems. 2010; 5(4).
Munger H, Vanasse A, Rioux S, Légere A. Bread wheat performance, fusarium head blight incidence and weed infestation response to low-input conservation tillage systems in eastern Canada. Can J Plant Sci. 2014; 94: 193–201.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881 (2006) of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L364: 5–24.
Malmauret L, Parent-Massin D, Hardy JL, Verger P. Contaminants in organic and conventional foodstuffs in France. Food Addit Contam. 2002; 19: 524–532.
Birzele B, Meier A, Hindorf H, Kramer J, Dehne, HW. Epidemiology of Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol content in winter wheat in the Rhineland, Germany. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2002; 108: 667–673.
Arseniuk E, Chełkowski J, Foremska E, Góral T. Fusarium Head Blight Reactions and Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Some of its Derivatives in Kernels of Wheat, Triticale and Rye. J Phytopathol. 1999; 147: 466–489.
Büttner P. Das Artenspektrum der Gattung Fusarium an Weizen und Roggen in Bayern in des Jahren 2003 und 2004, Gesunde Pflanzen. 2006; 58: 28–33.
Perkowski J. Badania zawartości toksyn fuzaryjnych w ziarnie zbóż. Rozprawy Naukowe Rocznik AR w Poznaniu. 1999; 295: 11–34.
Berg T, Ghorbani F, Rasmussen PH. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market, Food Additives and Contaminants. 2003; 20(4): 396–404.
Edwards SG. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional wheat. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A 2009b; 26: 496–506.
Champeil A, Fourbet JF, Dore T, Rossignol L. Influence of cropping system on Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin levels in winter wheat. Crop Protection. 2004; 23: 531–537.
Berleth M, Backes F, Kramer J. Schimmelpilzspektrum und Mycotoxine (Deoxynivalenol und Ochratoxin A) in Getreideproben aus okologischem und integrierten Anbau. Agribiological Research. 1998; 51: 369–376.
Marx H, Gedek B, Kollarczik B. Vergleichende untersuchungen zum mykotoxikologischen status von okologisch und konventionell angebautem getreide. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel- Untersuchung und–Forschung. 1995; 201: 83–86.
Hoogenboom LAP, Bokhorst G, Northolt MD, Vijer LVD, Broex, NJG, Mevius, DJ, Meijs, JAC and Roest, JVD. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products; comparison with conventional products. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A. 2005; 25: 1195–1207.
Mader P, Hahn D, Dubois, D, Gunst L, Alfoldi, T Bergmann, H, Oehme M, Amado R, Schneider H, Graf U, Velimirov A, Fliessbach A, Niggli U. Wheat quality in organic and conventional farming: results of a 21 year field experiment. J Sci Food Agric. 2007; 87: 1826–1835.
Eltun R. The Apelsvoll cropping system experiment, III. Yield and grain quality of cereals. Norwegian J Agric Sci. 1996; 10: 7–22.
Cirillo T, Ritieni A, Visone M, Cocchieri RA. Evaluation of conventional and organic Italian foodstuffs for deoxynivalenol and fumonisins B1 and B2. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 8128–8131.
Rossi F, Bertuzzi T, Comizzoli S, Turconi G, Roggi C, Pagani M, Cravedi P, Pietri A. Preliminary survey on composition and quality of conventional and organic wheat. Italian J Food Sci. 2006; 18: 355–366.
Pussemier L, Larondelle Y, Van Peteghem C, Huyghebaert A. Chemical safety of conventionally and organically produced foodstuffs: a tentative comparison under Belgian conditions. Food Cont. 2006; 17: 14–2.
Lacko-Bartosova M, Kobida L. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated systems. Res J Agric Sci. 2011; 43: 68–72.
Kirincic S, Skrjanc B, Kos N, Kozolc B, Pirnat N, Tavcar- Kalcher G. Mycotoxins in cereals and cereal products in Slovenia – official control of foods in the years 2008–2012. Food Control 2015; 50: 157–165.
Edwards SG. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional barley. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A 2009c; 26: 1185–1190.
Doll S, Valenta H, Danicke S, Flachowsky G. Fusarium mycotoxins in conventionally and organically grown grain from Thuringia/Germany. Landbauforschung Volkenrode. 2002; 2(52): 91–96.
Blajet-Kosicka A, Twaruzek M, Kosicki R, Sibiorowska E, Grajewski J. Co-occurrence and evaluation of mycotoxins in organic and conventional rye grain and grain products. Food Control. 2014; 38: 61–66.
European Commission (EC). Commission Regulation (EC) no. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union L 2006; 364: 5–24.
De Galarreta JIR, Butron A, Ortiz-Barredo A, Malvar RA, Ordas A, Landa A, Revilla P. Mycotoxins in maize grains grown in organic and conventional agriculture. Food Control 2015; 52: 98–102.
Meister U. Fusarium toxins in cereals of integrated and organic cultivation from the Federal State of Brandenburg (Germany) harvested in the years 2000–2007. Mycotoxin Research. 2009; 25: 133–139.
Stanisławczyk R, Rudy M, Świątek B. Występowanie mikotoksyn w zbożach i przetworach zbożowych znajdujących się w placówkach handlowych województwa podkarpackiego. Żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość. 2010; 6(73): 58–66.
Mazurkiewicz J, Solarska E, Kuzdraliński A, Muszyńska M. The occurrence of fusarium toxins in winter wheat depending on fertilization. J Res Appl Agric Engineering. 2008; 15, 53(4).
Perkowski J, Chełkowski J. Porównanie zawartości deoksyniwalenolu i 3-acetylodeoksyniwalenolu w naturalnie porażonej pszenicy w latach 1986–1988. Post Nauk Roln. 1993; 242(2): 83–89.
Birzele B, Prange, A, Krämer, J. Deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in German wheat and changes of levels in relation to storage parameters. Food Addit Contam. 2000; 17: 1035–1039.
Gutmacher B, Lauber U, Schnaufer R. Oekomonitoring, CVUA Stuttgart.
Ghali R, Hmaissia-khlifa K, Ghorbel H, Maaroufi K, Hedili A. Incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in Tunisian foods. Food Control. 2008; 19: 921–924.
Solarska E, Marzec M. Mycotoxins in cereal products from organic cultivation. J Res Appl Agric Engineering. 2012; 57 (4).
Vidal A, Marin S, Ramos AJ, Cano-Sancho G, Sanchis V. Determination of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in wheat and oat based bran supplements sold in the Spanish market. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 53: 133–138.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top