Introduction and objective:
The spread of drug-resistant bacteria is deemed a worldwide threat. Patients in long-term care, including those under palliative care, are exposed to a high risk of colonization and infection with drug-resistant pathogens. This refers primarily to long-term care facilities as opposed to home care. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 1 January 2018 – 30 June 2019. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee at the Medical University of Warsaw (KB/222/2017).

The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and type of colonization with drug-resistant pathogens among patients in long-term care facilities and those under home hospice care. An additional aim was evaluation the risk of pathogen transmission according to the type of provided long-term care.

Material and methods:
The study included 129 participants: 68 patients under the care of 3 long-term care facilities in Warsaw, Poland, 42 patients under home hospice care, and 19 household members of hospice patients. All included participants provided written informed consent. Oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were obtained from all participants for microbiological assessment.

Colonization with pathogens was more common in long-term care facilities residents (82.4%) than in at-home hospice patients (42.9%). Risk of colonization was significantly lower in patients staying at home than in long-term care facilities patients (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.06–0.38).

Conclusions. Risk of colonization with drug-resistant pathogens depends on the type of care and is significantly higher in patients staying at long-term care facilities. Systemic measures, such as microbiological screening, are necessary to provide optimal patient care and to ensure epidemiological safety, both to patients and their caregivers.

Funding and conflicts of interest. The research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The Authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Data sharing. The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Acknowledgments Language and editorial assistance was provided by Proper Medical Writing, Warsaw, Poland.
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