Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria
More details
Hide details
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Mafikeng Campus, North-West University, Mmabatho, South Africa
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2):357-361
Introduction and objective:
Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers.

Material and Methods:
Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses.

The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state), difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state), missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state), inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state), and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state). The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103), their education (-0.0226), years of cocoa farming (-0.0112), malaria infection (0.4901), missed spraying (0.5061), re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630), reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154), contact with extension (0.2411) and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311) were statistically significant (p<0.05).

Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

Lundgren K, Kukren K, Gao C, Hormer I. Effect of heat stress on working populations when facing heat stress. Industrial Health 2013;. 51: 3–15.
Anim-Kwapong G, Frimpong E. Vulnerability of agriculture to climate change impact of climate change on cocoa production. Accra, Ghana,.
Obatolu CR, Fashina AB, Olaiya AO. Effects of Climatic changes on Cocoa Production in Nigeria. Proceeding of African Crop Science Conference, Lagos, Nigeria, 2003.pp. 957- 959.
Ojo AD, Sadiq I. Effect of climate change on cocoa yield: a case of Cocoa Research Institute (CRIN) farm, Oluyole Local Government. Ibadan, Oyo State. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 2010; 12(1): 350–358.
World Health Organization. Health and safety components of environmental impact assessment. Environment Health Series 15. Copenhagen, WHO, 1987.
Oluwatusin FM. The perception of and adaptation to climate change amongcocoa farm households in Ondo State, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2014; 3(1): 147–156.
Saliu O. Feature: More farming, less education for school age children in northern Nigeria. Internet file africa/2013–11/05/c_132858600.htm (Access: 2014.05.11).
Aromolaran A. Female schooling, non-market productivity, and labor market participation in Nigeria’ Economic Growth Centre, Discussion Paper 879. USA, Yale University, 2004.
Sackey HA. Female labor force participation in ghana: the effects of education. AERC Research Paper 150. Nairobi, 2005.
Fasoranti MM. A Stochastic frontier analysis of effectiveness of cassava-based cropping systems in Ondo State, Nigeria.” PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. Akure, FUTA, 2006.
Oladeebo JO. Economic efficiency of rain-fed upland rice production in Osun and Oyo States of Nigeria.”PhD Thesis Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. Akure, FUTA, 2006.
Third National Development Plan 1975–80. Federal Ministry of Economic Development. Lagos, Nigeria, 1975.
Hoshen MB, Morse AP. A weather driven model of malaria transmission, Malaria Journal 2004; 3:32.
Abdussalam AF, Leckebusch GC, Thornes JE. Climate change and variability: the impact on climate-sensitive diseases up to 2050s for. North-Western Nigeria Early Carrer Scientist Assembly Workshop National Center for Atmospheris Research, Mesa Lab – Boulder, CO Thursday; 20 Oct 2011 Abdussalam.pdf (Access: 2012.01.13).
Rosenzweig C, Hillel D. Climate change and the global harvest. New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
Gutierrez AP. Climate change: effects on pest dynamics,” In: Reddy KR, Hodges HF, eds Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity. New York, CAB International, 2000.
Patterson DT, Westbrook JK,. Joyce RJV, Lingren PD, Rogasik J. Weeds, insects and disease. Climatic Change 1999; 43: 711–727.
Low T, Booth C. The weedy truth about biofuels. Invasive Species Council, Inc., 2007. (access: 19 May 2014).
Booth C, Carr G, Low T. Weedy pasture plants for salinity control: sowing the seeds of destruction. Invasive Species Council and The Wilderness Society 2009. (access: 19 May 2014).
Kimengsi JN, Tosam JN, Climate variability and cocoa production in Meme Division of Cameroon: agricultural development policy options. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2013; 3(8): 606–617.
FMOH. Annual report on national malaria control programme in Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health, 2005.p. 47.
The Africa malaria report for year 2003. WHO/UNICEF, 2003. p.9–29.
Gorsky M, Guntupalli A, Harris B, Hinde A. Ageing, Sickness and health in England and Wales during the mortality transition. Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association; Oct 25 2008; Miami, Florida.
Riley J. Sick, not dead: the health of British workingmen during the mortality decline. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Piha K, Laaksonen M, Martikainen P, Rahkonen O, Lahelma E. Interrelationships Between Education, Occupational Class, Income and Sickness Absence. European Journal of Public Health 2009; 20(3): 276–280.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top