Introduction and objective:
Tularaemia is an infrequently occurring disease in Poland. It has therefore rarely been taken into account in the differential diagnosis of skin lesions, lymphadenitis, or soft tissue abscesses. This fact, accompanied by non-specific initial presentation, may lead to a delay in diagnosis and a more severe course of the disease. Objective. The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on tularaemia and convince medical professionals to take it into consideration in the diagnosis of skin lesions, lymphadenitis, and tissue abscesses.

Review methods:
A literature review using PubMed and other online resources, using terms including ‘tularaemia’, ‘lymphadenitis’, etc., was undertaken. Papers were reviewed for relevance and scientific merit.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Tularaemia, also known as ‘rabbit fever’, is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis, an aerobic, facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacteria. In Europe, it is mainly spread via tick bites and contact with wild animals such as lagomorphs and rodents. Clinical presentation may differ depending on the transmission route; the ulceroglandular and glandular forms of disease predominate. An early diagnosis and implementation of appropriate antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of successful treatment and make it possible to avoid a surgical incision and drainage of suppurative complications.

Raised awareness and knowledge on tularaemia among health care professionals are required for timely diagnosis and treatment. Arrival from endemic areas, contact with wild animals, tick bites, and exclusion of more common etiologies of presenting signs should prompt consideration of tularaemia. More research is needed for a better understanding of the burden of the disease and its impact on public health in Poland.

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