RESEARCH PAPER
Trends of potential years of life lost due to main causes of deaths in urban and rural population in Poland, 2002–2011
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
3
Students’ Scientific Group of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
4
Centre of Public Health and Health Promotion, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
5
College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
6
Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med 2015;22(3):564–571
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to main causes of deaths in Poland in 2002–2011, with consideration of place of residence, urban-rural. The material for the study was the number of deaths due to main causes in Poland in years 2002–2011, based on data from the Central Statistical Office. Premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of PYLL indicator (PYLL – Potential Years of Life Lost). PYLL rate was calculated according to the method proposed by J. Romeder, according to which the premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. Time trends of PYLL rate and the annual percent change (APC) were assessed using the Joinpoint Regression Programme. Rural/urban ratio was used to presented the differences in premature mortality between rural and urban areas . In years2002–2011, the PYLL rate for all-cause deaths decreased by 13.2% among men and 16.0% among women in rural areas, whereas in urban decreased it decreased by 15.7% among men and 14.9% among women. In 2011, the main causes of PYLL among men in rural areas were: external causes (32.3%), cardiovascular diseases (23.5%) and cancers (19.4%); in urban areas: cardiovascular diseases (24.7%), external causes (24.3%) and cancers (20.9%). Among women in rural areas, the leading causes were: cancers (39.9%), cardiovascular diseases (20.1%) and external causes (15.1%). The main causes of premature mortality among women in urban areas were: cancers (41.7%), cardiovascular diseases (19.6%) and external causes (11.1%). Premature mortality among men in rural areas was significantly higher than in urban for all analysed causes of death, with the exception of ischaemic heart diseases and colorectal cancer. Premature mortality among women in rural areas was significantly lower than in urban for all analysed cause of deaths, except of cerebrovascular diseases, external causes, suicides and traffic accidents. The presented epidemiological situation for premature mortality indicate differences in the state of health of the inhabitants in urban and rural areas in Poland. The leading causes of premature mortality are caused by preventable deaths, which leads to a need to intensify measures in primary and secondary prevention.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Michalina Krzyżak   
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
 
REFERENCES (49):
1. Xavier A, Price Ch, von Nordheim F. Solidarity in health. The European Commission sets out new actions on health inequalities. Eurohealth 2009; 15(3): 1–4.
2. Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam AJR, Schaap MM, Menvielle G, Leinsalu M, et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 countries. N Engl J Med. 2008, 358: 2468–2481.
3. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Social inequalities in health in Poland. http://www.euro.who.int/__data... (access: 2015.03.20).
4. Whitehead M, Dahlgren G. Concepts and principles for tackling social inequities in health: levelling up part 1. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007. http://www.euro.who.int/__data... assets/pdf_file/0010/74737/E89383.pdf (access: 2015.03.20).
5. Maniecka-Bryła I, Pikala M, Bryła M. Health inequalities among rural and urban inhabitants of Łódz Province, Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 19(4): 723–31.
6. Lipowicz A. Disparities in health status between rural and urban adult males in Lower Silesia, Poland. Anthropol Anz. 2015; 72(1): 13–25.
7. Krzyżak M, Maślach D, Bielska-Lasota M, Juczewska M, Rabczenko D, Marcinkowski JT, et al. Breast cancer survival gap between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie voivodship, Poland, in 2001- 2002. Population study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 17: 277–282.
8. Maślach D, Krzyżak M, Szpak A, Owoc A, Bielska-Lasota M. Waiting time for treatment of women with breast cancer in Podlaskie Voivodeship (Poland) in view of place of residence. A population study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(1): 161–166.
9. Narodowy Program Zdrowia na lata 2007–2015. http://www.mz.gov.pl/__data/as... (access: 2015.03.20).
10. Topór-Mądry R, Gilis-Januszewska A, Kukiewicz J, Pająk A. Szacowanie potrzeb zdrowotnych. Uniw Wydaw Med. „Vesalius”, Kraków 2002: 37–43.
11. Gromulska L, Wysocki MJ, Goryński P. Lata przeżyte w zdrowiu (Healthy life years, HLY) – zalecany przez Unię Europejska syntetyczny wskaźnik sytuacji zdrowotnej ludności. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008; 62: 811–820.
12. Romeder J, McWhinnie J. Potential Years of Life Lost Between Ages 1 and 70: An Indicator of Premature Mortality for Health Planning. Int J Epidemiol. 1977; 6: 143–151.
13. Gardner J. Sanborn J. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) – what does it measure? Epidemiology 1990; 1: 322–329.
14. Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/s... (access: 2015.03.20).
15. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems: tenth revision. 2nd edition. Geneva 2004.
16. http://stat.gov.pl/bdl/app/dan... (access: 2015.03.22).
17. Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med. 2000; 19: 335–351 (correction: 2001; 20: 655).
18. Joinpoint Regression Program. Version 4.0.4. May 2013; Statistical Research and Applications Branch. National Cancer Institute.
19. Health Disparities Calculator, Version 1.2.4. 2013; Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute.
20. Zatoński W. Evaluation of health in Poland since 1988. Centrum Onkologii – Instytut. Warszawa, 1996: 13–19.
21. Mainous A, Kohrs F. A comparison of health status between rural and urban adults. J Commun Health. 1995; 20: 423–431.
22. Senior, M, Williams H. Higgs G. Urban-rural mortality differentials: controlling for material deprivation. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51: 289–305.
23. Singh GK, Siahpush M. Widening rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from major causes of death in the USA, 1969–2009. J Urban Health. 2014; 91(2): 272–292.
24. Bobak M, Pikhart H, Pajak A, Kubinova R, Malyuyina S, Sebakova H, et al. Depressive symptoms in urban population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. B J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 359–365.
25. Leinsalu M, Stirbu I, Vågerö D, Kalèdienè R, Kovàcs K, Wojtyniak B, et al. Educational inequalities in mortality in four Eastern European countries divergence in trends during the post-communist transition from 1990 to 2000. Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38: 512–525.
26. Kalediene R, Petrauskiene J. Socio-economic transition, inequality, and mortality in Lithuania. Econ Hum Biol. 2004; 2: 87–95.
27. Colin M, Thies B, Doris MF. Global burden of Disease: update 2004. In Edition World Health Organisation, 2004.
28. Wojtyniak B, Wysocki M. Wybrane aspekty sytuacji demograficzno-społecznej. In: Wojtyniak B, Goryński P, Moskalewicz B (eds.). Sytuacja zdrowotna ludności Polski i jej uwarunkowania. Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego. Warszawa. 2012, p. 58–59.
29. Kułaga Z, Litwin M, Wójcik P, Jakubowska-Winecka A, Grajda A, Gurzkowska B, et al. Przyczyny i nasilenie zgonów dzieci wiejskich w latach 1999–2006 – porównanie z dziećmi miejskimi. Med Ogól. 2010; 16 (XLV): 63–75.
30. Bandosz P, O’Flaherty M, Drygas W, Rutkowski M, Koziarek J, Wyrzykowski B, et al. Decline in mortality from coronary heart disease in Poland after socioeconomic transformation: modelling study. BMJ, 2012; 344: d8136 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d8136.
31. Tyczyński JE, Bray F, Aareleid T. Lung cancer mortality patterns in selected Central. Eastern and Southern European countries. Int J Cancer.2004; 109: 598–610.
32. Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, Rosso T, Bertuccio P, Gallus S, Chatenoud L, et al. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions. Lung Cancer. 2012; 78: 171–178.
33. Ministerstwo Zdrowia, World Health Organization Regional Officer for Europe. Globalny sondaż dotyczący używania tytoniu przez osoby dorosłe (GATS) Polska 2009–2010.
34. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Zatoński W. Nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce w 2009 roku. Centrum Onkologii Instytut. Warszawa, 2000.
35. Bosetti C, Levi F, Rosato V, Bertuccio P, Lucchini F, Negri E, et al. Recent trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe. Int J Cancer. 2011; 129; 180–191.
36. Gatta G, Zigon G, Aareleid T, Ardanaz E, Bielska-Lasota M, Galceran J, et al. Patterns of care for European colorectal cancer patients diagnosed 1996–1998: a EUROCARE High Resolution Study. Acta Oncol. 2010; 49: 776–783.
37. Arbyn M, Raifu A, Weiderpass E, Bray F, Anttila A. Trends of cervical cancer mortality in the member states. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45: 2640–2648.
38. Spaczyński M, Karowicz-Bilinska A, Rokita W, Molińska-Glura M, Januszek-Michalecka L, et al. Attendance rate in the Polish Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007–2009. Ginekol Pol. 2010; 81: 655–663.
39. Krzyżak M, Maślach D, Pogorzelska P, Piekutowska S, Szpak A. Breast cancer mortality in urban and rural femal population in Poland in years 2002–2011. Zdr Publ. 2013; 123(4): 273–276.
40. Fnis S, Storm HH. Urban-rural variation in cancer incidence in Denmark 1943–1987. Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A: 538–44.
41. Smailyte G, Kurtinaitis J. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8:56. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1... (access: 2015.03.26).
42. Howe HL, Keller JE, Lehnherr M. Relation between population density and cancer incidence, Illinois, 1986–1990. Am J Epidemiol. 1993; 138: 29–36.
43. Yu XQ, O’Connell DL, Gibberd RW, Armstrong BK. Assessing the impact of socio-economic status on cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia 1996–2001. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 1383–1390.
44. Rachtan J, Sokołowska A, Geleta M, Molong Ł. Zachorowalność na nowotwory złośliwe piersi u kobiet w województwie małopolskim w latach 1999–2001. Współcz Onkol. 2008; 9: 425–428.
45. Krzyżak M, Maślach D, Juczewska M, Lasota W, Rabczenko D, Marcinkowski JT, et al. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001–2002. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 17: 159–62.
46. Bosetti C, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Chatenoud L, Negri E, La Vecchia C. The decline in breast cancer mortality in Europe: An update (to 2009). The Breast. 2012; 21: 77–82.
47. Curado MP, Edwards B, Shin HR, Storm H, Feray J, Heanue M, et al. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Vol. IX. IARC Scientific Publication No. 160. IARC. Lyon; 2007.
48. Boyle P, Levin B. World Cancer Report. IARC/WHO. Lyon; 2008.
49. Savidan A, Junker Ch, Cerny T, Ess S, et al. Premature mortality in Switzerland from 1995–2006: causes and trends. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010; 140: w13077. doi: 10.4414/smw.2010.13077.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966