Trends of potential years of life lost due to main causes of deaths in urban and rural population in Poland, 2002–2011
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Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Students’ Scientific Group of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Centre of Public Health and Health Promotion, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland
Michalina Krzyżak   

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(3):564–571
The aim of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to main causes of deaths in Poland in 2002–2011, with consideration of place of residence, urban-rural. The material for the study was the number of deaths due to main causes in Poland in years 2002–2011, based on data from the Central Statistical Office. Premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of PYLL indicator (PYLL – Potential Years of Life Lost). PYLL rate was calculated according to the method proposed by J. Romeder, according to which the premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. Time trends of PYLL rate and the annual percent change (APC) were assessed using the Joinpoint Regression Programme. Rural/urban ratio was used to presented the differences in premature mortality between rural and urban areas . In years 2002–2011, the PYLL rate for all-cause deaths decreased by 13.2% among men and 16.0% among women in rural areas, whereas in urban decreased it decreased by 15.7% among men and 14.9% among women. In 2011, the main causes of PYLL among men in rural areas were: external causes (32.3%), cardiovascular diseases (23.5%) and cancers (19.4%); in urban areas: cardiovascular diseases (24.7%), external causes (24.3%) and cancers (20.9%). Among women in rural areas, the leading causes were: cancers (39.9%), cardiovascular diseases (20.1%) and external causes (15.1%). The main causes of premature mortality among women in urban areas were: cancers (41.7%), cardiovascular diseases (19.6%) and external causes (11.1%). Premature mortality among men in rural areas was significantly higher than in urban for all analysed causes of death, with the exception of ischaemic heart diseases and colorectal cancer. Premature mortality among women in rural areas was significantly lower than in urban for all analysed cause of deaths, except of cerebrovascular diseases, external causes, suicides and traffic accidents. The presented epidemiological situation for premature mortality indicate differences in the state of health of the inhabitants in urban and rural areas in Poland. The leading causes of premature mortality are caused by preventable deaths, which leads to a need to intensify measures in primary and secondary prevention.
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