0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
Online first
RESEARCH PAPER
 
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
 
 

Study on changing patterns of reproductive behaviours due to maternal features and place of residence in Poland during 1995–2014

Agnieszka Genowska 1  ,  
Maciej Polak 2,  
Andrzej Szpak 3,  
Irena Walecka 4,  
 
1
Department of Public Health, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Epidemiology, Demography and Biostatistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
4
Clinic of Dermatology, Central Clinical Hospital, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Warsaw , Poland
5
College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
The sharp decline in the total fertility rate in Poland coincided with broader socio-economic changes, which resulted in its reduction to the lowest level observed among the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the changing patterns of reproductive behaviour in rural and urban areas, depending on the demographic and socio-economic features in Poland.

Material and Methods:
Information about live births in Poland in the years 1995–2014 were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. Registered cases of live births in rural and urban areas were analyzed considering the maternal features (age, marital status, main source of income). To evaluate the changes in fertility and comparisons between rural and urban areas, Joinpoint Regresssion was used.

Results:
In 1995–2014, a shift in the age of highest fertility from 20–24 years to 25–29 years was observed. This occurred at the same time as a reduction in the fertility rate per 1,000 women aged 15–29 years, more pronounced in rural areas (95.8 to 60.0) than in urban areas (63.4 to 51.5), while in women aged 30–49 years, a faster increase in fertility was observed in urban areas (16.4 to 32.0) than in rural areas (27.5–29.2). Fertility trends between rural and urban areas differed significantly. A significant increase in live births for employed mothers was shown mainly in 2005–2009; later, the growth rate in rural areas was slower and in urban areas the growth trend stopped.

Conclusions:
The postponement of births and reduction of fertility in women aged 15–29 requires active measures aimed at creating favourable conditions for achieving economic independence for the younger generation, as well as combining work with raising children, especially in rural areas.

Abbreviations:
APC – annual percentage change; AAPC – average annual percentage change; CSO – Central Statistical Office; TFR – total fertility rate

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Agnieszka Genowska   
Department of Public Health, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
 
REFERENCES (46):
1. Lestahaeghe R. A Century of demographic and cultural change in Western Europe: an exploration of underlying dimensions. Popul Develop Rev. 1983; 9(3): 411–434.
2. Van de Kaa DJ. Europe’s second demographic transition. Popul Bull. 1987; 42(1): 1–57.
3. Engelhardt H, Kögel T, Prskawetz A. Fertility and women’s employment reconsidered: a macro-level time-series analysis for developed countries, 1960–2000. Popul Stud (Camb).2004; 58(1): 109–120.
4. Snopkowski K, Kaplan H. A Synthetic biosocial model of fertility transition: testing the relative contribution of embodied capital theory, changing cultural norms, and women’s labor force participation. Am J Phys Anthropol.2014; 154(3): 322–333.
5. Okólski M. Wyzwania demograficzne Europy i Polski. Stud Socjol. 2010; 199(4): 37–78.
6. Frejka T, Sobotka T. Fertility in Europe: Diverse, delayed and below replacement. Demogr Research. 2008; 19(3): 15–46.
7. Kohler H, Billari F, Ortega J. Low fertility in Europe: causes, implications and policy options. In: Harris F. (Ed.). The baby bust who will do the work? Who will pay the taxes? Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 2006.
8. Frejka T. Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Demogr Research. 2008; 19(7): 139–170.
9. Kotowska I, Jóźwiak J, Matysiak A, Baranowska A. Poland: Fertility Decline as a response to profound societal and labor market changes? Demogr Research.2008;19(22): 795–854.
10. Modena F, Rondinelli C. Economic insecurity and fertility intentions: the case of Italy. Review Income Wealth. 2014; 60(Suppl): S233-S255. doi: 10.1111/roiw.12044.
11. Główny Urząd Statystyczny: Rocznik Demograficzny 2014. GUS, Warszawa 2015.
12. Sobotka T, Skirbekk V, Philipov D. Economic Recession and Fertility in the Developed World. Popul Develop Review. 2011; 37(2): 267–306.
13. Eurostat 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat (access: 2016.08.27).
  WWW
14. Kotowska I. (red.). Niska dzietność w Polsce w kontekście percepcji Polaków. Diagnoza Społeczna 2013. Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej, Warszawa 2014.
15. Hoem J, Mureşan C, Hărăguş M. Recent features of cohabitational and marital fertility in Romania. Population. 2013; 68(4): 667–695.
16. Wojciechowska M, Krauss H, Bogdański P, Mikrut K, Chęcińska Z, Szulińska M, et al. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(2): 435–439.
17. Matysiak A. Posiadanie własnego mieszkania a rodzicielstwo w Polsce. Stud Demogr. 2011; 159(1): 37–55.
18. Currie J, Schwandt H. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014; 111(41): 14734–14739.
19. Kulu H. Why Do fertility levels vary between urban and rural areas? Region Studies. 2013; 47(6): 895–912.
20. Europejska Fundacja na rzecz Poprawy Warunków Życia i Pracy: Jakość życia na obszarach miejskich i wiejskich Europy. Eurofound, Luksemburg 2014.
21. Farmer J, Munoz S, Threlkeld G. Theory in rural health. Aust J Rural Health. 2012; 20(4): 185–189.
22. Kulu H. Fertility of internal migrants: comparison between Austria and Poland. Popul Space Place. 2006; 12(3): 147–170.
23. Brzozowska Z. Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie urodzeń pozamałżeńskich w Polsce w latach 2002–2010. Stud Demogr. 2011; 160(2): 59–83.
24. Podogrodzka M. Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie płodności w Polsce. Stud Demogr. 2011; 160(2): 85–106.
25. Baranowska-Rataj A. Decomposition of trends in non-marital child-bearing in Poland. Population-E. 2014; 69(2): 239–253.
26. Szukalski P. Regionalne zróżnicowanie kalendarza płodności we współczesnej Polsce. Probl Polit Społ. 2014; 27(4): 55–73.
27. Gałka J, Kurek S, Wójtowicz M. Differentiation of reproductive behaviour of the population of the Kraków Metropolitan Area in the light of survey research. Bull Geogr Soc Econ Series. 2016; 31: 45–57.
28. Potârcă G, Mills M, Lesnard L. Family formation trajectories in Romania, the Russian Federation and France: towards the second demographic transition? Eur J Popul. 2013; 29(1): 69–101.
29. Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2014. Europe and Central Asia food and agriculture. FAO, Budapest 2014.
30. Valkonen T, Blomgren J, Kauppinen T, Martikainen P, Mäenpää E. The effects of regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. Demogr Research. 2008; 19(61): 2043–2056.
31. De Beer J, Deerenberg I. An explanatory model for projecting regional fertility differences in the Netherlands. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2007; 26: 511–528.
32. Goldstein J, Klüsener S. Spatial analysis of the causes of fertility decline in Prussia. Popul Develop Review. 2014; 40(3): 497–525.
33. Dribe M,Breschi M,Gagnon A,Gauvreau D,Hanson H,Maloney T, et al. Socio-economic status and fertility decline: insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America. Popul Stud (Camb). 2017; 71(1): 3–21.
34. Główny Urząd Statystyczny: Prognoza ludności na lata 2014–2050. GUS, Warszawa 2014.
35. Lewandowski P, Iga M (red.). Zatrudnienie w Polsce 2013. Praca w dobie przemian strukturalnych. CRZL, Warszawa 2014.
36. Colleran H. Farming in transition: land and property inheritance in a rural Polish population. Soc Biol Hum Aff. 2014; 78(1&2): 7–19.
37. Colleran H, Jasienska G, Nenko I, Galbarczyk A, Mace R. Fertility decline and the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality. Proc R Soc. 2015; 282(1806): 20150287. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0287.
38. Michalska S. Tradycyjne i nowe role wiejskich kobiet. Wieś Roln. 2013; 159(2): 124–139.
39. Czapiński J, Panek T. (red.). Warunki i jakość życia Polaków. Diagnoza społeczna 2015. Rada Monitoringu Społecznego, Warszawa 2015.
40. Podogrodzka M. Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie poziomu oraz dynamiki zawierania małżeństw w Polsce w latach 1999–2011. Przegl Geogr. 2013; 85(2): 243–269.
41. Simon C. Do higher rents discourage fertility? Evidence from U.S. cities, 1940–2000. Region Sci Urban Econ. 2009; 39: 33–42.
42. Kovac J, Addai J, Smith R, Coward R, Lamb D, Lipshultz L. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility. Asian J Androl. 2013; 15: 723–728.
43. Wdowiak A, Wdowiak A, Moroz E, Bojar I. Comparison of selected sperm parameters between 6,278 males in Poland and Ukraine. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016; 23(1): 174–181.
44. Zgliczyński W. Wynagrodzenia w Polsce. BAS; 22(159): 1–4.
45. Kulu H, Washbrook E. Residential context, migration and fertility in a modern urban society. Adv Life Course Res. 2014; 21: 168–182.
46. Szukalski P. Demografia współczesnego dzieciństwa. Polit Społ. 2009; 9: 2–5.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966