Study on changing patterns of reproductive behaviours due to maternal features and place of residence in Poland during 1995–2014
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Department of Public Health, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Department of Epidemiology, Demography and Biostatistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Clinic of Dermatology, Central Clinical Hospital, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Warsaw , Poland
College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
Agnieszka Genowska   

Department of Public Health, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(1):137–144
The sharp decline in the total fertility rate in Poland coincided with broader socio-economic changes, which resulted in its reduction to the lowest level observed among the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the changing patterns of reproductive behaviour in rural and urban areas, depending on the demographic and socio-economic features in Poland.

Material and Methods:
Information about live births in Poland in the years 1995–2014 were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. Registered cases of live births in rural and urban areas were analyzed considering the maternal features (age, marital status, main source of income). To evaluate the changes in fertility and comparisons between rural and urban areas, Joinpoint Regresssion was used.

In 1995–2014, a shift in the age of highest fertility from 20–24 years to 25–29 years was observed. This occurred at the same time as a reduction in the fertility rate per 1,000 women aged 15–29 years, more pronounced in rural areas (95.8 to 60.0) than in urban areas (63.4 to 51.5), while in women aged 30–49 years, a faster increase in fertility was observed in urban areas (16.4 to 32.0) than in rural areas (27.5–29.2). Fertility trends between rural and urban areas differed significantly. A significant increase in live births for employed mothers was shown mainly in 2005–2009; later, the growth rate in rural areas was slower and in urban areas the growth trend stopped.

The postponement of births and reduction of fertility in women aged 15–29 requires active measures aimed at creating favourable conditions for achieving economic independence for the younger generation, as well as combining work with raising children, especially in rural areas.

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