RESEARCH PAPER
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children
 
More details
Hide details
1
Pediatric ENT Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
2
Pediatric Radiology Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
3
Department of Physiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
4
Department of Allergology and Environmental Hazards, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med 2014;21(4):822–824
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal.

Objective:
The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection.

Material and Methods:
After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

Results:
The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak   
Department of Allergology and Environmental Hazards, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
 
REFERENCES (18):
1. De Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, Zur Hausen H. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology 2004; 324: 17–27.
2. Ziemski Z, Rak J, Krajewska B, Bochnia M. Badania histologiczne oraz mikroskopowo-elektronowe brodawczaków krtani u dzieci i u dorosłych. Otolaryngol Pol. 1990; 44 (1): 19–32 (in Polish).
3. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM. Fields Virology. Lippincot’t – Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1996.
4. Van den Brule AJC, Walboomers JMM, Meijer CJLM. Epstein-Barr virus infection as co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis? J Pathol. 1995; 176: 219–220.
5. Donne AJ, Hampson L, Homer JJ, Hampson IN. The role of HPV type in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. In J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010; 74: 7–14.
6. MacNab JCM, Walkinshaw SA, Cordiner JW, Clements JB. Human papillomavirus in clinically and histologically normal tissue of patients with genital cancer. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 1052–1058.
7. Reidy PM, Dedo HH, Rabah R. Integration of human papillomavirus type 11 in recurrent respiratory papilloma-associated cancer. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 1906–1909.
8. Rombaldi RL, Serafini EP, Mandelli J, Zimmermann E, Losquiavo KP. Perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA. Virol J. 2009; 6: 1–12.
9. Sun J.D., Weatherly R., Koopmann Jr. C.F., Carey T.E.: Mucosal swabs detect HPV in laryngeal papillomatosis patients but not family members. In J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000; 53: 95–103.
10. Syrjanen KJ, Syrjanen S. Papillomavirus infections in human disease. New Jork, Wiley, 2000.p.1–615.
11. Syrjanen KJ. HPV infections in benign and malignant sinonasal lesions. J Clin Pathol. 2003; 56: 174–181.
12. Smith EM, Swarnael S, Ritchie JM, Wang D, Haugen TH, Turek LP. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in the Oral Cavity/Oropharynx in a Large Population of Children and Adolescent. Ped Inf Dis J. 2007; 26(9): 836–840.
13. Fife KH, Rogers RE, Zwickl BW. Symptomatic and asymptomatic cervical infections with human papillomavirus. J Infect Dis. 1987; 156: 904.
14. Maitland NJ, Cox MF, Lynas C, Prime SS, Meanwell CA, Scully C. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in biopsies of human oral tissue. Br J Cancer. 1987; 56: 245–250.
15. Tasca RA, McCormic M, Clarke RW. British Association of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology members experience with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006; 70: 1183–1187.
16. Tripi PA, Kandil ES, Arnold JE. Anesthetic management for laser axcision of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a third trimester parturient. J Clin Anest. 2005; 17: 610–613.
17. Zur Hausen H, Meinhof W, Schreber W. Attempts to detect virus-specyfic DNA sequences in human tumors. Nucleic acid hybridization with complementary RNA of human wart wirus. Int J Cancer. 1974; 13: 650–656.
18. Schraff S, Derkay CS, Bourke B, Lawson L. American Sociecty of Pediatric Otolaryngology Members experience with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and the use of adjuvant therapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004; 130: 1039–1042.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966