Physical activity of children and adolescents from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia: A systematic review
More details
Hide details
Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland
Adam Kantanista   

Poznan University of Physical Education, Królowej Jadwigi 27/39, 61-871, Poznań, Poland
Introduction and objective:
Systematic monitoring of physical activity of young populations from different regions may be useful for making international comparisons, better understanding trends in physical activity and designing public health interventions to increase physical activity. Thus, the aim of the study was to comprehensively review studies examining the level of physical activity of children and adolescents from the Visegrád countries, and indicate the percentage of children and adolescents meeting the recommended level of physical activity.

Material and Methods:
A systematic search of the published literature was conducted. Included were reports with original research that consisted of the proportion of children and adolescents who met physical activity recommendations or guidelines. To provide a current picture of physical activity of children and adolescents, the review was restricted to studies published between January 2015 – November 2018.

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations were met by between 7.5% – 69.4% of children and adolescents. Vigorous physical activity recommendations were met by between 33.6% – 64.5% of children and adolescents. Daily recommendations for the number of steps taken were fulfilled by between 11.6% – 69.0% of children and adolescents. Differences between age categories, genders and countries were observed.

Public health interventions to increase physical activity are required to decrease insufficient levels of physical activity in children and adolescents, especially in girls. The review also highlights the need for studies with representative random samples that use validated measurement methods.

The authors would like to thank Justyna Andrzejczak, who assisted with the electronic searches of computerised databases.
Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2018.
Janssen I. Physical activity guidelines for children and youth. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007; 32: 109–121.
Janssen I, Leblanc A. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010; 7: 40.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance. Atlanta, GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.
Kantanista A, Osiński W. Underweight in 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys: prevalence and associations with physical activity and sedentary activities. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(1): 114–119.
World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2010.
Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1.6 million participants. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020; 4(1): 23–35.
Inchley J, Currie D, Young T, Samdal O, Torsheim T, Augustson L et al. (Eds.). (2016). Growing up unequal: Gender and socioeconomic differences in young people‘s health and well-being. Health behaviourin school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2013/2014 survey. (Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 7). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. WHO, 2016.
Parikh T, Stratton G. Influence of intensity of physical activity on adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness in 5–18 year olds. Sports Med. 2011; 41: 477–488.
Owens S, Galloway R, Gutin B. The case for vigorous physical activity in youth. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2017; 11(2): 96–115.
Frömel K, Groffik D, Chmelík F, Cocca A, Skalik K. Physical activity of 15–17 years old adolescents in different educational settings: a Polish-Czech study. Cent Eur J Publ Heal. 2018; 26(2): 137–143.
Sigmund E, Sigmundová D, Badura P, Kalman M, Hamrik Z, Pavelka, J. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity and screen time among Czech adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A national health behaviour in school-aged children study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 12(9): 11848–11868.
World Health Organization. Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) Factsheet. Highlights 2015–17. WHO, 2018.
Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, WHO, 2009.
Niźnikowska E, Bergier J, Bergier B, Ăcs P, Junger J, Salonna F. Factors influencing levels of physical activity among female students from the Visegrad countries. Health Probl Civilz. 2019; 13(1): 19–29.
World Health Organization. Physical activity factsheets for the 28 European Union member states of the WHO European Region. WHO, 2018.
Lubowiecki-Vikuk A, Biernat E. Organized and unorganized forms of leisure time physical activity among junior high school students in relation to individual and socio-environmental factors. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2015; 96(2): 448–457.
Sterdt E, Liersch S, Walter U. Correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents: A systematic review of reviews. Health Educ J. 2014; 73(1): 72–89.
Bakalar P, Kopcakova J, Geckova AM. Association between potential parental and peers‘correlates and physical activity recommendations compliance among 13–16 years old adolescents. Acta Gymnica. 2019; 49(1): 16–24.
Adamo KB, Prince SA, Tricco AC, Connor-Gorber S, Tremblay M. A comparison of indirect versus direct measures for assessing physical activity in the pediatric population: A systematic review. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009; 4(1): 2–27.
Bergier J. A critical review of physical activity figures for comparison studies using IPAQ surveys and accelerometer measurements. J Health Inequal. 2017; 3(1): 78–82.
Marker AM, Steele RG, Noser AE. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2018; 37(10): 893–903.
Liberati A, Altman D, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2016; 6: e1000100.
Brindova D, Veselska ZD, Klein D, Hamrik Z, Sigmundova D, van Dijk JP, Geckova AM. Is the association between screen-based behaviour and health complaints among adolescents moderated by physical activity? Int J Public Health. 2015; 60(2): 139–145.
Czajka K, Sławińska T, Kołodziej M, Kochan, K. Assessment of physical activity by pedometer in Polish preschool children. Hum Mov. 2015; 16(1): 15–19.
Gába A, Mitáš J, Jakubec L. Associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity and body fatness in school-aged children. Environ Health Prev Med. 2017; 22(1): 43.
Kalman M, Hamrik Z, Sigmund E, Sigmundová D, Salonna F. Physical activity of Czech adolescents: Findings from the HBSC 2010 study. Acta Gymnica. 2015; 45(1): 3–11.
Kantanista A, Król-Zielińska M, Borowiec J, Glapa A, Lisowski P, Bronikowski M. Physical activity of female children and adolescents based on step counts: meeting the recommendation and relation to BMI. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2015; 7(1): 66–72.
Kokko S, Martin L, Geidne S, Van Hoye A, Lane A, Meganck J, Badura P. Does sports club participation contribute to physical activity among children and adolescents? A comparison across six European countries. Scand J Public Health. 2018; 47(8): 851–858.
McMahon E, Corcoran P, O’Regan G, Keeley H, Cannon M, Carli V, et al. Physical activity in European adolescents and associations with anxiety, depression and well-being. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017; 26(1): 111–122.
Schwarzfischer P, Weber M, Gruszfeld D, Socha P, Luque V, Escribano J, et al. BMI and recommended levels of physical activity in school children. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1): 595.
Sigmundová D, Sigmund E, Badura P, Vokáčová J, Trhlíková L, Bucksch J. Weekday-weekend patterns of physical activity and screen time in parents and their pre-schoolers. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16(1): 898.
Tabak I, Mazur J, Nałęcz H. Family and individual predictors and mediators of adolescent physical activity. Health Psychol Rep. 2017; 5(4): 333–344.
Ács P, Bergier J, Salonna F, Junger J, Melczer C, Makai A. Gender differences in physical activity among secondary school students in the Visegrad countries (V4). Health Probl Civiliz. 2016; 10(3): 21–29.
Bergier B, Bergier J, Paprzycki P. Level and determinants of physical activity among school adolescents in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(1): 75–78.
Kantanista A, Osiński W. Physical activity of Poles-Critical analysis of research 2010–2014. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(4): 839–843.
Carson V, Spence JC. Seasonal variation in physical activity among children and adolescents: A review. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2010; 22(1): 81–92.
Osiński W. Socio-economic differences in body build and motor ability of children and adolescents. Stud Phys Cult Tour. 1994; 3: 25–35.
Balaban V. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity and fundamental motor skills in 8 to 11 years old children from the Czech Republic. Monten J Sports Sci Med. 2018; 7(2): 11–16.
EUROSTAT. Being young in Europe today. Publications Office of the European Union, 2015.
Ainsworth B, Cahalin L, Buman M, Ross R. The current state of physical activity assessment tools. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015; 57 (4): 387–395.
Welk GJ. Physical activity assessments for health-related research. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2002.
Strath SJ, Kaminsky LA, Ainsworth BE, Ekelund U, Freedson PS, Gary RA, et al. Guide to the assessment of physical activity: clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart association. Circulation. 2013; 128(20): 2259–2279.
Lynch BA, Kaufman TK, Rajjo TI, Mohammed K, Kumar S, Murad MH, et al. Accuracy of accelerometers for measuring physical activity and levels of sedentary behavior in children: A Systematic Review. J Prim Care Community Health. 2019; 10.
Kantanista A, Bronikowski M, Laudańska-Krzemińska I, Król-Zielińska M, Osiński W. Positive effect of pedometer-based walking intervention on body image and physical activity enjoyment in adolescent girls. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2017; 9(1): 34–42.
Santos-Lozano A, Hernández-Vicente A, Pérez-Isaac R, Santín-Medeiros F, Cristi-Montero C, Casajús JA, et al. Is the SenseWear Armband accurate enough to quantify and estimate energy expenditure in healthy adults? Ann Transl Med. 2017; 5(5): 97.