Introduction and objective:
Human oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1) is a protein identified in 2001 which belongs to the OKL38 protein family. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of this protein depending on the severity of alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis.

Material and methods:
The study group consisted of 60 patients: 30 patients with cirrhosis in the P-Ch A and B stage and 30 in the P-Ch C stage. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver diseases, who did not abuse alcohol. Oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined in blood serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. All absorbance readings were conducted using an Epoch Microplate Spectrophotometer (BioTek Instrumentals, Inc., Winooski, VT, USA). OSGIN1, FGF1 and FGF21 concentrations were determined using Sandwich enzyme immunoassay kits (by Cloud Clone Corp., Katy, TX, USA). Statistica 13.3 (TIBCO Software, Inc.) was used for data analysis.

The concentration of OSGIN1 was 0.028 ± 0.017 in the control group which increased with the advancement of liver cirrhosis (stage of Pugh-Child): 0.075 ± 0.098 in the P-Ch A + B group and 0.121 ± 0.134 in the P-Ch C stage. Multiple comparison tests confirmed statistically significant differences in OSGIN1 concentration between the control group and P-Ch C (p <0.02). Significant correlations were noted between OSGIN1 and FGF1 (r = 0.39; p = 0.004) and between OSGIN1 and FGF21 (r = 0.53; p <0.0001).

The study revealed that the level of OSGIN1 increased significantly in the P-Ch C stage of liver cirrhosis. It is possible that OSGIN1 may be used for the non-invasive diagnosis of ALD, but its possible diagnostic value is still very uncertain.

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. http://atlasgeneticsoncology.o.... Access: 16.09.2021.
Hu J, Yao H, Gan F, Tokarski A, Wang Y. Interaction of OKL38 and p53 in regulating mitochondrial structure and function. PLoS One 2012;7:e43362.
Tsai CH, Lii CK, Wang TS, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes the formation of autophagosomes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells through oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 mediated activation of AMPK/mTOR pathway. Food Chem Toxicol. 2021; 154: 112318.
Liu M, Li Y, Chen L, et al. Allele-specific imbalance of oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 associates with progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(4): 1084–1096.
Yuan Q, Zhu H, Liu H, Wang M, Chu H, Zhang Z. METTL3 regulates PM(2.5)-induced cell injury by targeting OSGIN1 in human airway epithelial cells. J Hazard Mater. 2021; 415: 125573.
Wang G, Zhou H, Strulovici-Barel Y, et al. Role of OSGIN1 in mediating smoking-induced autophagy in the human airway epithelium. Autophagy. 2017; 13(7): 1205–1220.
Gao B, Bataller R. Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Gastroenterology.2011; 141(5): 1572–1585.
Lu X, Xuan W, Li J, Yao H, Huang C, Li J. AMPK protects against alcohol-induced liver injury through UQCRC2 to up-regulate mitophagy. Autophagy. 2021; 14: 1–22.
Lemasters JJ, Zhong Z. Mitophagy in hepatocytes: types, initiators and role in adaptive ethanol metabolism. Liver Res. 2018; 2(3): 125–132.
Barrios-Maya MA, Ruiz-Ramírez A, Quezada H, Céspedes Acuna CL, El-Hafidi M. Palmitoyl-CoA effect on cytochrome c release, a key process of apoptosis, from liver mitochondria of rat with sucrose diet-induced obesity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2021; 154: 112351.
Zhou Z, Sun X, Kang YJ. Ethanol-induced apoptosis in mouse liver: Fas- and cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. Am J Pathol. 2001; 159(1): 329–338.
Lebensztejn DM, Flisiak-Jackiewicz M, Białokoz-Kalinowska I, Bobrus-Chociej A, Kowalska I. Hepatokines and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Acta Biochim Pol. 2016; 63(3): 459–467.
Gong Z, Tas E, Yakar S, Muzumdar R. Hepatic lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in aging. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017; 455: 115–130.
Singh S, Osna NA, Kharbanda KK. Treatment options for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A review. World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(36): 6549–6570.
Askgaard G, Leon DA, Kjaer MS, Deleuran T, Gerds TA, Tolstrup JS. Risk for alcoholic liver cirrhosis after an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems: A nationwide prospective cohort study. Hepatology. 2017; 65(3): 929–937.
Tan HK, Yates E, Lilly K, Dhanda AD. Oxidative stress in alcohol-related liver disease. World J Hepatol. 2020; 12(7): 332–349.
Michalak A, Lach T, Cichoż-Lach H. Oxidative Stress – A Key Player in the Course of Alcohol-Related Liver Disease. J Clin Med. 2021; 10(14): 3011.
Nandeesha H, Rajappa M, Kadhiravan T, Srilatha K, Harichandrakumar KT, Thyagarajan D. Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin and Interleukin-6 as Predictors of Fibrosis in Alcohol Cirrhosis. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2016; 31(1): 117–120.
Yang M, Xu D, Liu Y, et al. Combined Serum Biomarkers in Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0131664. eCollection 2015.
Wagner-Skacel J, Horvath A, Grande P, et al. Association of fibroblast growth factor 21 with alcohol consumption and alcohol liver cirrhosis. Neuropsychiatr. 2021; 35(3): 140–146.
Remmler J, Schneider C, Treuner-Kaueroff T, et al. Increased Level of Interleukin 6 Associates With Increased 90-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 16(5): 730–737.
Laso FJ, Almeida J, Torres E, Vaquero JM, Marcos M, Orfao A. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an increased cytotoxic profile of circulating lymphocytes that may be related with the development of liver injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010; 34(5): 876–885.
Ong CK, Ng CY, Leong C, et al. Genomic structure of human OKL38 gene and its differential expression in kidney carcinogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(1): 743–754.
Ong CK, Leong C, Tan PH, Van T, Huynh H. The role of 5’ untranslated region in translational suppression of OKL38 mRNA in hepatocellularcarcinoma. Oncogene. 2007; 26(8): 1155–1165.
Huynh H, Ng CY, Ong CK, Lim KB, Chan TW. Cloning and characterization of a novel pregnancy-induced growth inhibitor in mammary gland. Endocrinology. 2001; 142(8): 3607–3615.
Brennan MS, Matos MF, Richter KE, Li B, Scannevin RH. The NRF2 transcriptional target, OSGIN1, contributes to monomethyl fumarate-mediated cytoprotection in human astrocytes. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 42054.
Watanabe LM, Hashimoto AC, Torres DJ, et al. Effect of statin treatment in obese selenium-supplemented mice lacking selenocysteine lyase. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2021; 533: 111335.
Prystupa A, Dąbrowska A, Sak JJ, et al. Concentrations of fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin and alpha-Klotho in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Exp Ther Med. 2016; 12(5): 3464–3470.
Quintero-Platt G, González-Reimers E, Rodríguez-Gaspar M, et al. Alpha Klotho and Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Among Alcoholics. Alcohol Alcohol. 2017; 52(5): 542–549.
Martín-González C, González-Reimers E, Quintero-Platt G, Martínez-Riera A, Santolaria-Fernández F. Soluble alpha-Klotho in Liver Cirrhosis and Alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol. 2019; 54(3): 204–208.