RESEARCH PAPER
Morphological and cytophysiological changes in selected lines of normal and cancer human cells under the influence of a radio-frequency electromagnetic field
 
More details
Hide details
1
University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
2
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
3
ADR Technology, Poznań, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Agnieszka Nowak-Terpiłowska   

Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637, Poznań, Poland
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Currently, mobile phones and Wi-Fi are the most commonly used forms of telecommunication. The popularity of mobile telecommunications has made it necessary to investigate the problem more comprehensively and cautiously assess the possible risks, because never before in history has such a substantial proportion of the population been exposed to microwaves at comparably high levels. Some studies indicate that the high frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone and Wi-Fi connections can have a negative effect on human health, and can cause cancer.

Objective:
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the radiofrquency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the metaboloc activity and morphology of normal human cells (fibroblasts) and cancer cells (prostate cancer cells).

Material and methods:
The cell cultures (human fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells) were exposed to RF-EMF at the frequency of 2.5 GHz for 24, 48 and 72h. To quantify changes in cell viability, the Cell Counting Kit – 8 was used.

Results:
It was found that the RF electromagnetic field exposure caused a significant decrease in the viability of fibroblasts, and a significant increase in cancer cells. Morphological analysis did not show significant changes in both cell lines after exposure to RF-EMF.

Conclusions:
On the basis of the obtained results, the hypothesis can be formulated that a high frequency electromagnetic field can have harmful effects on human cells.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The publication was co-financed within the framework of a Ministry of Science and Higher Education program as ‘Regional Initiative Excellence’ in the years 2019–2022, Project No. 005/RID/2018/19.
 
REFERENCES (59)
1.
GSMA Mobile Economy. 2018. https://www.gsma.com/mobileeco... Mobile-Economy-2018.pdf.
 
2.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2017. Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones. http://www.who.int/mediacentre.... Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
 
3.
Hardell L, Mild KH, Påhlson A, Hallquist A. Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001; 10: 523–529.
 
4.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH. Case–control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000–2003. Neuroepidemiol. 2005 a; 25(3): 120–128.
 
5.
Hardell L, Sage C. Biological effect from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother 2008; 62(2): 104–109.
 
6.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(6): 1833–1845.
 
7.
Prasad M, Kathuria P, Nair P, Kumar A, Prasad K. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes. Neurol Sci. 2017; 38(5): 797–810.
 
8.
Cardis E, Deltour I, Mann S, Moissonnier M, Taki M, Varsier N, Wake K, Wiart J. Distribution of RF energy emitted by mobile phones in anatomical structures of the brain. Phys Med Biol. 2008; 53: 2771–2783.
 
9.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH. Pooled analysis of two case–control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997–2003. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006; 79(8): 630–639.
 
10.
Wiart J, Hadjem A, Wong MF, Bloch I. Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults. Phys Med Biol. 2008; 53(13): 3681–3695.
 
11.
Gandhi OP, Kang G. Some present problems and a proposed experimental phantom for SAR compliance testing of cellular telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz. Phys Med Biol. 2002; 47(9): 1501–1518.
 
12.
Sadetzki S, Chetrit A, Jarus-Hakak A, Cardis E, Deutch Y, Duvdevani S, Zultan A, Novikov I, Freedman L,Wolf M. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors—a nationwide case–control study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167(4): 457–467.
 
13.
Hardell L, Eriksson M, Carlberg M, Sundstro¨m C, Mild KH. Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2005 b; 8(8): 625–632.
 
14.
Linet MS, Taggart T, Severson RK, Cerhan JR, Cozen W, Hartge P, Colt J. Cellular telephones and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Cancer 2006; 119(10): 2382–2388.
 
15.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Ohlson C-G, Westberg H, Eriksson M, Mild KH. Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer. Int J Androl. 2007; 30(2): 115–122.
 
16.
Lai H, Singh NP. Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18: 446–454.
 
17.
Phillips JL, Singh NP, Lai H. Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage. Pathophysiology 2009; 16: 79–88.
 
18.
Liu C, Duan W, Xu S, et al. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line. Toxicol Lett. 2013; 218:2–9.
 
19.
Kilgalton SJ, Simmons LW. Image content influences men’s semen quality. Biol Lett. 2005; 1: 385–393.
 
20.
Erogul O, Oztas E, Yildirim I, Kir T, Aydur E, Komesli G, Irkilata HC, IrmakMK, Peker AF. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility:an vitro study. Arch Med Res. 2006; 7(7): 840–8433.
 
21.
Davoudi M, Brössner C, Kuber W. Der Einfluss elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die Spermienmotilität. J Urol Urogynäkol. 2002; 9: 18–22.
 
22.
Gutschi T, AI-Ali BM, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Impact of cell phone use on men’s semen parameters. Andrologia 2011; 43(5): 312–316.
 
23.
Wdowiak A, Wdowiak L, Wiktor H. Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Ann Agr Env Med. 2007; 14(1): 169–172.
 
24.
Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszezynski DR, Franken DR. The effect of pulsed 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 2011; 34(1): 20–26.
 
25.
De Iullis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. PLos One 2009; 4(7): e6446.
 
26.
Avendano C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility Sterlity 2012; 97(1): 39–45.
 
27.
Yan JG, Agresti M, Bruce T, Yan YH, Granlund A, Metaloub HS. Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats. Fertility Sterility 2007; 88(4): 957–64.
 
28.
Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO. Preliminary study on the reduction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol. 2010; 84(1): 51–54.
 
29.
Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO. Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit. Int J Androl. 2010; 33(1): 88–94.
 
30.
Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Ulukaya E, Uzunlar AK, Yegin D. Mobile phone exposure does not induce apoptosis on spermatogenesis in rats. Arch Med Res. 2008; 39(1): 40–44.
 
31.
Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. Impact of radiofrquency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int J Androl. 2005; 28(3): 171–179.
 
32.
Gul A, Celebi H, Ugras S. The effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009; 280(5): 729–33.
 
33.
Nakamura H, Nagase H, Ogino K, Hatta K, Matsuzaki I. Uteroplacental circulatory disturbance mediated by prostaglandin f2alpha in rats exposed to microwaves. Reprod Toxicol. 2000; 14(3): 235–240.
 
34.
Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Krause C, Haarala C, Sillanmäki L, Laine M, Hämäläinen H. Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. Neuroreport. 2000; 11(2): 413–415.
 
35.
Krause CM, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Haggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H. Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000; 76(12): 1659–1667.
 
36.
Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M. Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Env Med. 2006; 63(5): 307–313.
 
37.
Huber R, Graf T, Cote KA, Wittmann L, Gallmann E, Matter D, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Borbely AA, Achermann P. Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG. Neuroreport. 2000; 11(15): 3321–3325.
 
38.
Santini R, Santini P, Le Ruz P, Danze JM, Seigne M. Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Electromag Biol Med. 2003; 22: 41–49.
 
39.
Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, Salem E. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology 2007; 28: 434–440.
 
40.
Kwee S, Raskmark P. Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation: 2. Microwave radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg. 1998; 44(2): 251–255.
 
41.
Capri M, Scarcella E, Fumelli C. Bianchi E, Salvioli S, Mesirca P, Agostini C, Antolini A, Schiavoni A, Castellani G, Bersani F, Franceschi C. In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Radiat Res. 2004; 162(2): 211–218.
 
42.
Pavisic I, Trosic I. Influence of 864 MHz electromagnetic field on growth kinetics of established cell line. Biologia 2008; 61(3): 321–325.
 
43.
Zhu Y, Gao F, Yang X, Shen H, Liu W. The effect of microwave emission from mobile phones on neuron survival in rat central nervous system. Prog Electromagn Res. 2008; 82: 287–298.
 
44.
Kwee S, Raskmark P, Velizarov S. Changes in cellular proteins due to environmental nonionizing radiation. 1. Heat shock proteins. Electro- and Magnetobiol. 2001; 20(2): 141–152.
 
45.
Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 2002; 70(2–3): 120–129.
 
46.
Remondini D, Nylund R, Reivinen J, Poulletier de Gannes F, Veyret B, Lagroye I, Haro E, Trillo MA, Capri M, Franceschi C, Schlatterer K, Gminski R, Fitzner R, Tauber R, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Leszczynski D, Bersani F, Maercker C. Gene expression changes in human cells after exposure to mobile phone microwaves. Proteomics 2006; 6(17): 4745–4754.
 
47.
Nylund R, Leszczynsk D. Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression inhuman endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Proteomics 2006; 6(17): 4769–4780.
 
48.
Dąbrowski MP, Stankiewicz W, Kubacki R, Sobiczewska E, S. Szmigielski S. Immunotropic effects in cultured humanblood mononuclear cells pre-exposedto low-level 1300 MHz pulse-modulatedmicrowave field. Electromagn Biol Med. 2003; 22(1): 1–13.
 
49.
Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H. Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res. 2005; 583(2): 178–183.
 
50.
Çam ST, Seyhan N. Single -strand DNA breaks in human hair root cells exposed to mobile phone radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012; 88(5): 420–424.
 
51.
Campisi A, Gulino M, Acquaviva R, Bellia P, Raciti G, Grasso R, Musumeci F, Vanella A, Triglia A. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field. Neurosci Lett. 2010; 473(1): 52–55.
 
52.
Lai H. Single-and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J. Radiat Biol. 2009; 69(4): 513–521.
 
53.
Garaj-Vrhovac V, Fučić A, Horvat D. The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro. Mutation Res Lett. 1992; 281(3): 181–186.
 
54.
Koyama S, Nakahara T, Wake K, Taki M, Isozumi Y, Miyakoshi J. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields on micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells. Mutation Res. 2003; 541(1–2): 81–89.
 
55.
Jin Z, Zong C, Jiang B, Zhou Z, Tong J, Cao Y. The effect of combined exposure of 900 MHz radiofrequency fields and doxorubicinin HL-60 cells. PLoS One 2012; 7: e46102.
 
56.
Marinelli F, La Sala D, Cicciotti G, Cattini L, Trimarchi C, Putti S, Zamparelli A, Giuliani L, Tomassetti G, Cinti C. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukaemia CCRF-CEM cells. J Cell Physiol. 2004; 198(3): 324–332.
 
57.
Caraglia M, Marra M, Mancinelli F, D’Ambrosio G, Massa R, Giordano A. Budillon A, Abbruzzese A, Bismuto E. Electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency induce apoptosis and inactivation of the multi-chaperone complex in human epidermoid cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005; 204(2): 539–548.
 
58.
Ouadah NS, Lecomte A, Robidel F, Olsson A, Deltour I, Schüz J,Kelly Blazy K,Villégier AS. Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on in vivo C6 brain tumors in Wistar rats. J Neuro-Oncol. 2018; 140(3): 539–546.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966