RESEARCH PAPER
Locomotor activity of adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in natural conditions
 
More details
Hide details
1
Chair and Department of Biology and Parasitology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Basic Nursing and Medical Teaching, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(2):271–275
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Expansion into new areas and the great epidemiological significance of the D. reticulatus tick in Europe prompts investigations of its ethology. Therefore, the locomotor activity of D. reticulatus adult stages in an optimal habitat during the spring and autumn activity periods was analysed.

Material and Methods:
Marked D. reticulatus adults were placed at the central point of each experimental plot. At regular time intervals, specimens attached to the cloth used in the flagging method were collected, and the distance covered by the ticks was measured. In each collection round, the temperature and humidity level in the habitat was also measured.

Results:
Within 7 weeks, adult D. reticulatus ticks can cover an average distance of 60.71±44 cm. The locomotor activity of adult stages is greater during the spring than the autumn activity period. Questing, females cover a greater distance (66.35±100 cm) than male ticks (54.85±45 cm). Adult stages are characterised by greater aggressiveness 24 hours after being released, i.e. 30% of females and 19% of males attempt to attach to host skin. The locomotor activity in adult ticks depends on the humidity of the habitat (Z=-1.198; p=0.050). The temperature does not affect tick walking.

Conclusions:
Given the low rates of horizontal locomotion of adult D. reticulatus ticks, the prevalence of the species in nature is determined by the presence of their hosts and humidity conditions ensuring their further development and survival. The dependence of D. reticulatus locomotor activity and aggressiveness on the humidity level implies an increased risk of host attacks in locations and periods that offer favourable humidity conditions for this species

 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Földvári G, Široký P, Szekeres S, Majoros G, Sprong H. Derma centor reticulatus: a vector on the rise. Parasit Vectors. 2016; 9(1): 314.
 
2.
Vatansever Z, Gargili A, Aysul NS, Sengoz G, Estrada-Peña A. Ticks biting humans in the urban area of Istanbul. Parasitol Res. 2008; 102(3): 551–553.
 
3.
Buczek A, Bartosik K. Ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Amblyommidae) in south-eastern Poland and their medical and epidemiological importance. Zdr Publ. 2011; 121(4): 392–397.
 
4.
Gray JS, Dautel H, Estrada-Peňa A, Kahl O, Lindgren E. Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe. Interdiscip Perspectives Infect Dis. 2009; 593232: 1–12.
 
5.
Buczek A, Bartosik K, Wiśniowski L, Tomasiewicz K. Changes in population abundance of adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Amblyommidae) in long-term investigations in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(2): 269–272.
 
6.
Buczek A, Bartosik K, Zając Z. Changes in the activity of adult stages of Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Amblyommidae) induced by weather factors in eastern Poland. Parasit Vectors. 2014; 7: 245.
 
7.
Sréter T, Széll Z, Varga I. Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus in Hungary: evidence for change? Vet Parasitol. 2005; 128(3–4): 347–351.
 
8.
Bullová E, Lukáň M, Stanko M, Peťko B. Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus tick in Slovakia in the beginning of the 21st century. Vet Parasitol. 2009; 165(3–4): 357–360.
 
9.
Široký P, Kubelová M, Bednář M, Modrý D, Hubálek Z, Tkadlec E. The distribution and spreading pattern of Dermacentor reticulatus over its threshold area in the Czech Republic—How much is range of this vector expanding? Vet Parasitol. 2011; 183(1–2): 130–135.
 
10.
Bartosik K, Wiśniowski L, Buczek A. Abundance and seasonal activity of adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Amblyommidae) in eastern Poland in relation to meteorological conditions and the photoperiod. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 340–344.
 
11.
Zając Z, Bartosik K, Buczek A. Factors influencing the distribution and activity of Dermacentor reticulatus (F.) ticks in an anthropopressure-unaffected area in central-eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016; 23(2): 270–275.
 
12.
Siuda K. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) of Poland. Part II Taxonomy and Distribution. Warszawa PTP, 1993 (in Polish).
 
13.
Bartosik K, Wiśniowski L, Buczek A. Questing behavior of Dermacentor reticulatus adults (Acari: Amblyommidae) during diurnal activity periods in eastern Poland. J Med Entomol. 2012; 49(4): 859–864.
 
14.
McMahon C, Guerin P. Attraction of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, to human breath and to the breath components acetone, NO and CO 2 . Naturwissenschaften 2002; 89(7): 311–315.
 
15.
Perret JL, Guerin PM, Diehl PA, Vlimant M, Gern L. Darkness favours mobility and saturation deficit limits questing duration in Ixodes ricinus, the tick vector of Lyme disease in Europe. J Exp Biol. 2003; 206(11): 1809–1815.
 
16.
Lane RS, Mun J, Peribáňez MA, Stubbs HA. Host-seeking behaviour of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in relation to environmental parameters in dense-woodland and woodland-grass habitats. J Vector Ecol. 2007; 32(2): 342–357.
 
17.
Lane RS, Mun J, Peribáňez MA, Stubbs HA. Horizontal and vertical movements of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in a hardwood forest. J Vector Ecol. 2009; 34(2): 252–266.
 
18.
Carroll JF, Schmidtmann ET. Dispersal of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs and adults at the woods-pasture interface. J Med Entomol. 1996; 33(4): 554–558.
 
19.
Knulle W, Rudolph D. Humidity relationships and water balance of ticks. In: Obenchain FD, Galun R, (eds). Physiology of Ticks, Oxford; 1982. p. 43–70.
 
20.
Norval RAI, Peter T, Yunker CE, Sonenshine DE, Burridge MJ. Responses of the ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and A. variegatum to known or potential components of the aggregation-attachment pheromone. I. Long-range attraction. Exp Appl Acarol. 1991; 13(1): 11–18.
 
21.
Carroll JF, Mills GD, Schmidtman ET. Field and laboratory responses of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) to kairomones produced by white-tailed deer. J Med Entomol. 1996; 33(4): 640–644.
 
22.
Grenacher S, Kröber T, Guerin PM, Vlimant M. Behavioural and chemoreceptor cell responses of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, to its own faeces and faecal constituens. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001; 25(8): 641–660.
 
23.
Carroll JF. How specific are host-produced kairomones to host-seeking ixodid ticks? Exp Appl Acarol. 2002; 28(1–4): 155–161.
 
24.
Crooks E, Randolph SE. Walking by Ixodes ricinus ticks: intrinsic and extrinsic factors determine the attraction of moisture or host odour. J Med Exp Biol. 2006; 209(11): 2138–2142.
 
25.
Sonenshine DE. Biology of Ticks, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, 1991.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966