Influence of protein deficient diet, vitamin B2 supplementation and physical training on serum composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in rats

Aneta Lewicka 1  ,  
Anna Kłos 1,  
Tomasz Kurył 3,  
Department of Hygiene and Physiology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2017;24(2):185–189
Prolonged shortages of protein in the diet significantly alter the composition and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tissues and body fluids. One of nutritional factors which may reduce negative effects of protein malnutrition might be vitamin B2 due to its influence on lipids metabolism.

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of low protein (LP) diet enriched with vitamin B2 on the content and composition of PUFA in the blood serum of rats treated with dosed physical exercise.

Material and Methods:
The experiment was carried out for 3 months on 72 growing male Wistar rats divided into 5 groups. Animals were fed ad libitum on a diet with an energy value of 350 kcal/100 g, in which 4.5% of the energy was provided by protein. In the control diet, 20% of the energy was provided by protein. Two groups were fed the diet enriched with vitamin B2. The two groups of tested animals were trained for 5 days a week.

LP diet caused a decrease in α-linolenic acid (ALA) after 30 days, and a decrease in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) after 60 days of experiment, compared with rats fed the control diet. After 60 and 90 days of the experiment, a significant decrease was noted in arachidonic acid (AA) in serum of trained rats, compared with sedentary rats fed the LP diet. Physical activity increased LA (mainly on day 30), EPA (on day 90) and reduced AA content (on day 90) in serum of rats fed the LP diet. B2 supplementation in the trained LP group did not change the EPA and AA dependence; however, there was a decrease in LA content in comparison to the non-supplemented trained group.

Results of this study suggest that all investigated factors (protein deficiency, physical exercise and supplementation of vitamin B2) have significant impact on PUFA composition of serum in rats.

1. Gerson T, Wong MN. The effect of protein deficiency on some rat liver lipid metabolic enzymes and CoA. Lipids. 1978; 13(6): 446–450.
2. Houssaïni FZ, Foulon T, Iraqi MR, Payen N, Groslambert P. Lipids, lipoproteins, and fatty acids during infantile marasmus in the Fès area of Morocco. Biomed Pharmacother. 1999; 53(5–6): 278–283.
3. Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Mohammed S, Raman M, Avand G, Arendt BM, Jalali P, Kandasamy T, Prayitno N, Sherman M, Guindi M, Ma DW, Heathcote JE. Nutritional assessment and hepatic fatty acid composition in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a cross-sectional study. J Hepatol. 2008; 48(2): 300–307.
4. Bertrandt J, Kłos A, Dębski B. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid. Biofactors. 2004; 22(1–4): 189–192.
5. Bertrandt J, Kłos A, Dębski B. Influence of vitamin B6 supplementation on polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration in serum and liver of rats fed a diet restricted in protein. Nahrung. 2004; 48(2); 99–103.
6. Bertrandt J, Kłos A, Dębski B. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changes in serum and liver of undernourished rats given dietary vitamin B6 supplementation. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005; 51(3): 129–134.
7. Pregnolato P, Maranesi M, Marchetti M, Barzanti V, Bergami R, Tolomelli B. Interaction among dietary vitamin B6, proteins and lipids: effects on liver lipids in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994; 64(4): 263–269.
8. Westcott WL. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med. Rep. 2012; 11(4): 209–216.
9. Lewicka A, Lewicki S, Zdanowski R, Rutkowski P, Turkowska M, Kłos A, Bertrandt J. The effect of vitamin B6 supplementation of protein deficiency diet on hematological parameters in the blood of rats subjected/non subjected to physical exertion – a pilot study. Centr Eur J Immunol. 2012; 37(3): 187–192.
10. Chorell E, Svennson MB, Moritz T, Antti H. Physical fitness level is reflected by alterations in the human plasma metabolome. Mol Biosyst. 2012; 8(4): 1187–1196.
11. Malara M, Hübner-Wozniak E, Lewandowska I. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels. Biol Sport. 2013; 30(2): 117–123.
12. Olpin SE, Bates CJ. Lipid metabolism in riboflavin-deficient rats. 1. Effects of dietary lipids on riboflavin status and fatty acid profiles. 2. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation on the microsomal desaturation pathway. Br J Nutr. 1982; 47(3): 577–596.
13. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957; 226(1): 497–509.
14. Blau K, Halket J. Handbook of derivatives for chromatography. 2nd ed., John Wiley& Sons, England, 1993.
15. Gerson T. A comparison of the effects of dietary protein and lipid deprivation on lipid composition of liver membranes in rats. J Nutr. 1974; 104(6): 701–709.
16. Doran O, Moule SK, Teye GA, Whittington FM, Hallet KG, Wood JD. A reduced protein diet induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase protein expression in pig muscle but not in subcutaneous adipose tissue: relationship with intramuscular lipid formation. Br J Nutr. 2006; 95(3): 609–617.
17. Marín MC, Pucciarelli HM, de Alaniz MJ. Liver desaturase activities and FA composition in monkeys. Effect of a low-protein diet. Lipids. 2003; 38(5): 525–529.
18. Gangl A, Ockner RK. Intestinal metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. Gastroenterology. 1975; 68(1): 167–186.
19. Hood DA. Invited Review: contractile activity-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2001; 90(30): 1137–1157.
20. Terada S, Tabata I, Higuchi M. Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Jpn J Physiol. 2004; 54(1): 47–52.
21. Anttila K, Jäntti M, Mänttäri S. Effects of training on lipid metabolism in swimming muscles of sea trout (Salmo trutta). J Comp Physiol B. 2010; 180(5): 707–714.
22. Smith WL, Urade Y, Jakobson PJ. Enzymes of the cyclooxygenase pathways of prostanoid biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2011; 111(10): 5821–5865.
23. Walser B, Stebbins CL. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enhances stroke volume and cardiac output during dynamic exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008; 104(3): 455–461.
24. Peoples GE, McLennan PL, Howe PR, Groeller H. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008; 52(6): 540–547.
25. Manore, MM. Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72(2 Suppl): 598S-606S.
26. Tanabe K, Masuda K, Ajisaka R, Matsuda M, Hirayama A, Nagase S, et al. Relationships between Age, Daily Physical Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress among Middle-aged and Elderly People. Int J Sport Health Sci. 2006; 4: 515–527.
27. Bates CJ. Metabolism of [14C] adipic acid in riboflavin-deficient rats: a test in vivo for fatty acid oxidation. J Nutr. 1989; 119(6): 887–891.
28. Taniguchi M, Nakamura M. Effects of riboflavin deficiency on the lipids of rat liver. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1976; 22(2): 135–146.
29. Taniguchi M, Yamamoto T, Nakamura M. Effects of riboflavin deficiency on the lipids of rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1978; 24(4): 363–381.
30. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58(20): 2047–2067.
31. Buckley JD, Howe PR. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be beneficial for reducing obesity-a review. Nutrients. 2010; 2(12): 1212–1230.
32. Baylin A, Kim MK, Donovan-Palmer A, Siles X, Dougherty L, Tocco P, Campos H. Fasting whole blood as a biomarker of essential fatty acid intake in epidemiologic studies: comparison with adipose tissue and plasma. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 162(4): 373–381.
Copy url