Influence of dietary calcium intake on quantitative and qualitative parameters of bone tissue in Polish adults
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Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine, The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland
Andrzej Lewiński   

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(3):495–501
The objective of the study was to assess dietary calcium intake in the Polish population and its influence on selected parameters of bone tissue.

Material and Methods:
1,129 osteoporosis treatment–naive subjects, aged 20–80 years, randomly selected, were involved in the study. Bone status was established using densitometry of spine and hip and quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus. Dietary calcium intake was calculated according to data gathered in a questionnaire.

Median calcium intake was 746 mg; 72% of subjects had calcium intake below the recommended dose. Calcium intake correlated negatively with age (r = -0.15; p<0.001) and positively with BMD in the spine (r = 0.06; p<0.05) and in the femoral neck (r = 0.07; p<0.05). In subjects with the lowest calcium intake, a significantly lower femoral neck BMD and heel stiffness was noticed than in subjects with the highest calcium intake. However, multiple regression analysis showed that dietary calcium was not a predictor of low BMD, both in the hip and spine, as well as of bone stiffness in contrast to age, low BMI and female gender (p<0.0001). In all factors regression analysis, a weak influence of calcium intake on BMD was shown only in the subgroup of premenopausal women (β = 0.1; p<0.05).

In most subjects, dietary calcium intake was below the recommended dose; however, its influence on bone seems to be weak, except for persons with the greatest deficiency of dietary calcium and the subgroup of premenopausal women.

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