RESEARCH PAPER
First evidence of Babesia venatorum and Babesia capreoli in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic
Jan Mendel 1
,  
Zdenek Hubalek 1, 2
,  
Ivo Rudolf 1, 2
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
2
Masaryk University, Department of Experimental Biology, Brno, Czech Republic
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2):212–214
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Babesia spp. in host-seeking I. ricinus in urban and natural habitats.

Material and Methods:
PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of Babesia spp. in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for Babesia species determination.

Results:
1,473 I. ricinus ticks (1,294 nymphs, 99 males and 80 females) were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. at the two study sites. Minimum infection rate for Babesia spp. was found to be 0.5% (infected I. ricinus nymphs were only detected in the natural ecosystem). Two Babesia species were identified by sequencing: B. venatorum (formerly called Babesia sp. EU1) and B. capreoli.

Conclusions:
The results obtained represent the first evidence of the occurrence of B. venatorum and B. capreoli in host-seeking I. ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank Dr. M. Zahler-Rinder and Dr. Philippe Mendonca at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany, for providing positive controls of babesial DNA. They also extend their thanks to the Operational Programme Education for Competiveness Project CEB (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0183). The study was partially funded by the EU Grant FP7–261504 EDENext (http://www.edenext. eu). The publication is catalogued by the EDENext Steering Committee as EDENext178. The contents of this paper are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.
 
REFERENCES (15)
1.
Hubalek Z, Rudolf I. Microbial Zoonoses and Sapronoses. 1st ed. USA (New York), Springer, 2011.
 
2.
Skrabalo Z, Deanivič Z. Piroplasmosis in man. Docum Med Geogr Trop. 1957; 9: 11–16.
 
3.
Hildebrandt A, Gray JS, Hunfeld K-P. Human Babesiosis in Europe: what clinicians need to know. Infection 2013; 41: 1057–1072.
 
4.
Casati S, Sager H, Gern L, Piffaretti JC. Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006; 13(1): 65–70.
 
5.
Rudolf I, Golovchenko M, Šikutová S, Rudenko N, Grubhoffer L, Hubálek Z. Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in nymphal Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Czech Republic. Folia Parasitol. 2005; 52(3): 274–276.
 
6.
Øines Ø, Radzijevskaja J, Paulauskas A, Rosef O. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway. Parasit Vectors. 2012; 5: 156.
 
7.
Egyed L, Élő P, Sréter-Lancz Z, Széll Z, Balogh Z, Sréter T. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary. Ticks and Tick-borne Dis. 2012; 3(2): 90–94.
 
8.
Cassini R, Bonoli C, Montarsi F, Tessarina C, Marcer F, Galuppi R. Detection of Babesia EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2010; 171(1–2): 151–154.
 
9.
Schorn S, Pfister K, Reulen H, Mahling M, Silaghi C. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany. Parasit Vectors 2011; 4: 135.
 
10.
Silaghi C, Woll D, Hamel D, Pfister K, Mahling M, Pfeffer M. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasiting rodents and the parasitized rodents- Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in metropolitan area. Parasit Vectors. 2012; 5: 191.
 
11.
Malandrin L, Jouglin M, Sun Y, Brisseau N, Chauvin A. Redescription of Babesia capreoli (Enigk and Friedhoff, 1962) from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): Isolation, cultivation, host specificity, molecular characterisation and differentiation from Babesia divergens. Int J Parasitol. 2010; 40(3): 277–284.
 
12.
Skotarczak B, Cichocka A. Isolation and amplification by polymerase chain reaction DNA of Babesia microti and Babesia divergens in ticks in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2001; 8(2): 187–189.
 
13.
Wójcik-Fatla A, Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Zwoliński J, Buczek A, Dutkiewicz J. Prevalence of Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Lublin region (Eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006; 13(2): 319–322.
 
14.
Sytykiewicz H, Karbowiak G, Hapunik J, Szpechciński A, Supergan-Marwicz M, Goławska S, et al. Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks in central-eastern region of Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(1): 45–49.
 
15.
Nohýnková E, Kubek J, Mĕsťánková O, Chalupa P, Hubálek Z. A case of Babesia microti imported into the Czech Republic from the USA. Čas Lék Čes. 2003; 142(6): 377–381 (in Czech).
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966