RESEARCH PAPER
Examination of oral biofilm microbiota in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances in order to prevent risk factors for health complications
 
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1
Department of Orthodontics, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Medical Biology, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; One Health Center, Berry College, Mount Berry, Georgia, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Lidia Chomicz   

Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2019;26(2):231–235
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
In recent decades the use of orthodontic appliances in Poland has increased; however, data on their influence on changes of components of the microbiome connected with oral biofilm are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate oral microbiota in terms of their role as risk factors for health complications.

Material and methods:
The study included 100 patients treated with removable or fixed appliances. Oral hygiene and gingival health were determined, and periodontal swabs taken from each patient for parasitological, bacteriological and mycological microscopic and in vitro examinations.

Results:
Oral protists and various pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial and fungal strains were identified in the superficial layer of biofilm. A higher prevalence of bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and various strains of yeast-like fungi from the Candida albicans group, occurred in patients treated with the fixed appliance than in those using a removable appliance or not treated orthodontically. In some periodontal samples from patients treated with fixed appliances, cysts of the Acanthamoeba spp. were found.

Conclusions:
The use of orthodontic appliances alters the status of the oral cavity; it has impact on the colonization of oral biofilm by opportunistic/pathogenic strains, and increases the risk of their dissemination to various human tissues and organs. Pretreatment examination of oral microbiome, its monitoring particularly during treatment with fixed appliances, and preventive elimination of the potentially pathogenic strains to avoid health complications, are highly recommended, especially in patients with impaired immunity.

 
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