Mycotoxins – secondary mould metabolites with undesirable effects for humans – are common in the environment. These toxins are mainly produced by fungi of the genera Penicilium, Aspergillus and Fusarium.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of various sources of antioxidants (blueberries lyophilisate, cranberries lyophilisate and cinnamon powder), at 5 different concentrations (3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%), to inhibit the formation of mycotoxins during the storage of cereal products. Analysed cereal samples included selected cereal grains, bran and cereal products intended for consumption by children.

The results showed that supplementation of oat brans with the highest concentrations of blueberry lyophilisate resulted in a significant decrease in the mycotoxins levels; specifically: 20% concentration reduced the level of HT-2 toxin by 10.7% in one sample, while 30% concentration reduced it by 9.4% and 17.4% in 2 other samples. A similar result was measured for oat bran samples supplemented with the cranberry lyophilisate: specifically, 20% concentration significantly reduced the level of HT-2 toxin by 10.6% in one sample, while 30% concentration reduced it by an average of 18.0% ± 6,0% in 5 other samples. Finally, cinnamon powder supplementation caused a significant reduction in HT-2 levels in all stored samples, even at its lowest concentration. 30% supplementation resulted in HT-2 reduction in cereal samples by 67.1% – 76.1%, in wheat bran samples by 57.5% – 69.2%, in oat bran samples by 83.4% – 87.0% and by 55.0% – 100% in samples of cereal products intended for consumption by children.

Natural products used in the experiment (blueberry, cranberry, cinnamon) inhibited the formation of mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes.

Postupolski J, Starski A, Ledzion E, Kurpińska-Jaworska J, Szczęsna M. Exposure assessment of infants and young children on selected Fusarium toxins. Annals of the National Institute of Hygiene. 2019; 70, 5–14.
Sorrenti V, Di Giacomo C, Acquaviva R, Barbagallo I, Bognanno M, Galvano F. Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and its modulation by antioxidants: A review. Toxins. 2013; 5, 1742–1766.
Bhupendra S, Kharayat, Yogendra Singh. Mycotoxins in Foods: Mycotoxicoses, Detection, and Management Microbial Contamination and Food Degradation, A volume in Handbook of Food Bioengineering. 2018; 395–421.
Foroud NA, Eudes F. Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains. Int J Molecular Sci. 2009; 10, 147–173. doi:10.3390/ijms10010147.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, 2006; L 364, 5–24 (consolidated version).
European Commission, Commission Recommendation of 27 March 2013 on the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in cereals and cereal products. Official Journal of the European Union. 2013; L 91, 12–15.
Mylona K, Magan N. Fusarium langsethiae: Storage environment influences dry matter losses and T2 and HT-2 toxin contamination of oats. J Stored Products Res. 2011; 47, 321–327.
Medina A, Magan N. Temperature and water activity effects on production of T-2 and HT-2 by Fusarium langsethiae strains from north European countries. Food Microbiol. 2011; 28, 392–398.
Reddy KRN, Farhana NI, Salleh B, Oliveira CAF. Microbiological Control of Mycotoxins: Present Status and Future Concerns. Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology (A. Méndez-Vilas, Ed.). 2013, Formatex.
Prakash B, Singh P, Kedia A, Dubey NK. Assessment of some essential oils as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activities and in vivo efficacy in food system. Food Res Int. 2012; 49, 201–208.
Piotrowska A, Góralczyk M, Żebrowska-Krasusk M. Berries and their preserves as sources of antioxidants. Technological Progress in Food Processing. 2013; 2: 96–102.
Baranowska M, Bartoszek A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of bioactive phytochemicals from cranberry. Adv Hygiene Exp Med. 2016; 70, 1460–1468.
Przygodzka M, Zielińska D, Ciesarová Z, Kukurová K, Zieliński H. Comparison of methods for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds in common Spice. Food Sci Technol. 2013; 58: 321–326.
Król S, Kapka-Skrzypczak L. Pharmacological activity of essential oils and their components in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. General Medicine and Health Sciences. 2011; 17, 4, 202–205.
Prakash B, Singh P, Mishra PK, Dubey NK. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012; 153, 183–191.
Viuda-Martos M, Mohamady MA, Fernandez-Lopez J, Abd ElRazik KA, Omer EA, Perez-Alvarez J. A. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essentials oils obtained from Egyptian aromatic plants. Food Control. 2011; 22: 1715–1722.
Kocić-Tanackov SD, Dimić GR. Antifungal activity of essential oils in the control of food-borne fungi growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis in food. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education (A. Méndez-Vilas, Ed.) 2013, Formatex.
ISO 712:2009. Cereals and cereal products. Determination of moisture content.
ISO 21527–1:2009 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds. Part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 0,95.
ISO 21527–2:2009 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds. Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0,95.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology Medicine 1999; 26, 9–10, 1231.
Jeleń HH, Wąsowicz E. Determination of trichothecenes in wheat grain without sample cleanup using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 2008; 1215: 203–207.
Borowska EJ, Mazur B, Gadzała-Kopciuch R, Buszewski B. Po lyphenol, anthocyanin and resveratrol mass fractions and antioxi dant properties of cranberry cultivars. J Food Technol Biotechnol. 2009; 47: 56–61.
Rodrigues E, Poerner N, Rockenbach II, Gonzaga LG, Mendes CR, Feti R. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of blueberry cultivars grown in Brazil. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment Campinas. 2011; 31: 911–917.
Filipiak-Florkiewicz A, A Florkiewicz, Dereń K. Content of bioactive compounds in selected processed cereal products. Bromatology Toxicol Chem. 2016; 2: 194–2002.
Pleadin J, Vahcic N, Persi N, Sevelj D, Markov K, Frece J. Fusarium mycotoxins’ occurrence in cereals harvested from Croatian Fields. Food Control. 2013; 32: 49–54.
Stuper-Szablewska K., Perkowski J. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006– 2009. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(3): 504–509.
Suproniene S, Justesen AJ, Nicolaisen M, Mankeviciene A, Dabkevicius Z, Semaskiene R, Leistrumaite A. Distribution of trichothecene and zearalenone producing Fusarium species In grain of different cereal species and cultivars grown under organic farming conditions in Lithuania. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 17: 79–86.
Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, José Ruiz M, Font G, Berrada H. Exposure estimates to Fusarium mycotoxins through cereals intake. Chemosphere. 2013; 93: 2297–2303.
Twarużek M, Grajewska-Wanat N, Błajet-Kosicka A, Grajewski J. Occurrence of Fusarium and major mycotoxins in cereal grains harvested in 2011–2012. Progress in plant protection. 2013; 53, 4.
Czerwińska E, Kubiak MS. The influence of packaging on microbiological purity and selected physicochemical properties of bran. Probl Hyg Epidemiol. 2013; 94(2): 294–299.
Horvath A, Kovacs B, Nagy G. Application of mint and cinnamon against Fusarium disease of winter wheat. Episteme. 2013; 18(3): 297–304.
Dambolena JS, Zunino PM, López GA, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi WJ, Thoithi NG, Kibwage OI, Mwalukumbi MJ, Kariuki TS. Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effect on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010; 11(2): 239–422.
Dambolena JS, Zygadlo JA, Rubinstein HR. Antifumonisin activity of natural phenolic compounds. A structure–property–activity relationship study. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011; 145: 140–146.
Hussain A, Shafqatullah Ali J, Zia-ur-Rehman. Inhibition of aflatoxin producing fungus growth using chemical, herbal compounds/spices and plants. Pure and Applied Biology. 2012; 1: 8–13.
Císarová M, Tančinová D. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Essential Oils in Vapour Phase against Aspergillus flavus. Animal Sci Biotechnol. 2015; 48: 2.
Heidtmann-Bemvenuti R, Tralamazza SB, Ferreira CFJ, Corręa B, Badiale-Furlong E. Effect of natural compounds on Fusarium graminearum complex. J Sci Food Agric. 2016; 96: 3998–4008, doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7591.
Ferrochio L, Cendoya E, Farnochi MC, Massad W, Ramirez ML. Evaluation of ability of ferulic acid to control growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media. International J Food Microbiol. 2013; 167: 215–220.
Shan B, Cai Y-Z, Brooks JD, Corke H. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects of five spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives of raw pork. J Sci Food Agric. 2009; 89: 1879–1885.
Tamkutė L, Gil BM, Carballido JR, Pukalskienė M, Venskutonis PR. Effect of cranberry pomace extracts isolated by pressurized ethanol and water on the inhibition of food pathogenic/spoilage bacteria and the quality of pork products. Food Res Internat. 2019; 120: 38–51.