REVIEW PAPER
Diabetes and depression: a combination of civilization and life-style diseases is more than simple problem adding – literature review
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Public Health, Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education, Biała Podlaska, Poland
2
Independent Unit of Mental Health, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Computer Science and Health Statistic, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland; Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(2):318–322
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The article presents a review of current medical and psychological literature published between 2000 - 2010, with the use of the PubMed database, concerning the occurrence of anxiety and depression in diabetic patients, with particular consideration of those affected by complications. Anxiety and fear are the most frequent emotional disorders among diabetic patients. Depression occurs in approximately 30% of patients with diabetes. Both diabetes and depression belong to so called ‘life style’ or ‘civilization diseases’. Numerous studies have confirmed that the course of depression in patients with diabetes is more severe, and the relapses of depression episodes are more frequent. The studies show that diabetic patients experience various types of psychosocial and emotional problems due to which the monitoring of own state of health is not the priority in life. In the process of treatment of both sole diabetes and concomitant anxiety and depression it is important to adjust and motivate patients to apply widely understood therapeutic recommendations. The treatment of depression syndrome in the course of diabetes does not have to lead to improvement in glycaemic control. The following factors influencing the therapeutic effect should be mentioned: duration of diabetes, presence of complications, and the effect of the drugs applied on body weight, or possibly initial diabetes management. It seems, therefore, that the patient education model based on the provision of knowledge concerning diabetes and its complications, methods of treatment, principles of nutrition and health-promoting life style, may be insufficient, at least for patients with depression. The results of a review of reports shows that an optimum treatment of diabetes, in accordance with the current state of knowledge, requires from physicians a special consideration of psychological and psychiatric knowledge for the 2 following reasons: 1) effectiveness of therapy to a high degree depends on the proper behaviour of a patient; 2) considerably more frequent, compared to the total population, occurrence of the symptoms of emotional disorders negatively affect the course of diabetes.
 
REFERENCES (76)
1.
Peyrot M, Rubin RR. Levels and risks of depression and anxiety symptomatology among diabetic adults. Diabetes Care 2000;23(9): 1443-4.
 
2.
Pibernik-Okanovic M, Peros K, Szabo S, Begic D, Metelko Z. Depression in Croatian Type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and risk factors. A Croatian survey from the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium. Diabet Med 2005;22(7):942-5.
 
3.
Th omas J, Jones G, Scarinci I, Brantley P. A descriptive and comparative study of depressive and anxiety disorders in low income adults with type 2 diabetes and other chronic ilnesses. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8): 2311-7.
 
4.
Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. Th e prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24(6):1069-78.
 
5.
Burkitt DP. Some Diseases Characteristic of Modern Western Civilization. BM J 1973;1:274-278.
 
6.
Hu FB, Manson J, Stampfer M, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willet WC. Diet, Lifestyle and Th e Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women. N Engl J Med 2001;345(11):709-797.
 
7.
George E, Vaillant GE, Mukamal K. Successful Aging. Am J Psychiat 2001;158:839-847.
 
8.
Bonnet F, Irving K, Terra JL, Nony P, Berthez`ene F, Moulin P. Anxiety and depression are associated with unhealthy lifestyle in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 2005;178(2): 339-344.
 
9.
Fraser GE, Shavlik DJ. Ten Years of Life Is It a Matter of Choice? Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1645-1652.
 
10.
Idler EL, Kasl S. Health perceptions and survival: do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality? J Gerontol 1991;46(2):S55- 65.
 
11.
Saddinne JB, Cadwell B, Gregg EB, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F, Imperatore G, Narayan KMV. Improvements in diabetes processes of care and intermediate outcomes: United States,1988–2002. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:465-474.
 
12.
ADA Statement 2011: Diabetes Care 2011;34(Suppl 1):S5.
 
13.
ADA Statement 2011: Diabetes Care 2011;34(Suppl 1):S1.
 
14.
Zalecenia kliniczne dotyczące postępowania u chorych na cukrzycę 2011 Stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Diabetologicznego. (Clinical recommendations for the management of diabetes 2011. Consensus of the Polish Diabetes Society). Diabetol Dośw Klin 2011, 11(Suppl A): SA1-A48.
 
15.
Beverly IA, Brittney E, Hultgren A, Brooks KM, Ritholz MD. Understanding Physicians’ Challenges When Treating Type 2 Diabetic Patients’ Social and Emotional Diffi culties. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1086- 1088.
 
16.
Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE,Lustman PJ. Th e prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1069-1078.
 
17.
Katon WJ, Von Korff M, Lin EH, Simon G, Ludman E, Russo J, Ciechanowski P, Walker E, Bush T. Th e Pathways Study. a randomized trial of collaborative care in patients with diabetes and depression. Arch Gen Psychiat 2004;61:1042-1049.
 
18.
Abrahamian H, Hofmann P, Prager R, Toplak H. Diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression: treatment with milnacipran results in signifi cant improvement of both diseases (results from the Austrian MDDM study group). Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2009;5:261-6.
 
19.
Lustman PJ, Freedland KE, Griffi th LS, Clouse RE. Fluoxetine for depression in diabetes: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2000;23(5):618-23.
 
20.
Lustman PJ, Griffi th LS, Freedland KE, Kissel SS, Clouse RE. Cognitive behavior therapy for depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998;129(8):613-21.
 
21.
de Groot M, Anderson R, Freedland K, Clouse R, Lustman P. Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 2001;63(4):619-30.
 
22.
Kokoszka A, Santorski J. Psychodiabetologia dla lekarzy. Postępowanie psychoterapeutyczne w cukrzycy. Marketing and Media, Warsaw 2003.
 
23.
Lin EHB, Katon W, Von Korff M, Rutter C, Simon GE, Oliver M, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EJ, Bush T, Young B. Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2154-2160.
 
24.
Ciechanowski P. Diapression: An Integrated Model for Understanding the Experience of Individuals With Co-Occurring Diabetes and Depression. Clin Diabet 2011;29(2):43-49.
 
25.
Morse S, Ciechanowski PS, Katon WJ, Hirsch I. Isn’t this just bedtime snacking? Th e potential adverse eff ects of night eat ing symptoms on treatment adherence and outcomes in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1800-1804.
 
26.
Colton PA, Olmsted MP, Daneman D, Rydall A, Rodin G. Disturbed eating behavior and eating disorders in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes: a case controlled study. Diabetes Care 2004;27: 1654-1659.
 
27.
Golden SH, Lazo M, Carnethon M, Bertoni AG, Schreiner PJ, Diez-Roux AV et al. Examining a Bidirectional Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Diabetes, JAMA 2008;299(23):2751-2759.
 
28.
Bruce DG, Davis WA, Starkstein SE, Davis TM. A prospective study of depression and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 2005;48(12):2532-9.
 
29.
Lin EH, Rutter CM, Katon W, Heckbert SR, Ciechanowski P, Oliver MM. Depression and advanced complications of diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care 2010;33(2):264-9.
 
30.
Lustman PJ, Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, de Groot M, Carney RM, Clouse RE. Depression and poor glycemic control: a meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care 2000;23:434-42.
 
31.
Black PH. Th e infl ammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X. Brain Behav Immun 2003;17: 350-364.
 
32.
Georgiades A, Zucker N, Friedman KE, Mosunic CJ, Applegate K, Lane JD. Changes in depressive symptoms and glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Psychosom Med 2007;69(3):235-41.
 
33.
Clouse RE, Lustman PJ, Freedland KE, Griffi th LS, McGill JB, Carney RM. Depression and coronary heart disease in women with diabetes. Psychosom Med 2003;65(3):376-83.
 
34.
Young BA, Von Korff M, Heckbert SR, Ludman EJ, Rutter C, Lin EH. Association of major depression and mortality in Stage 5 diabetic chronic kidney disease. Gen Hosp Psychiat 2010;32(2):119-24.
 
35.
Roy MS, Roy A, Aff ouf M. Depression is a risk factor for poor glycemic control and retinopathy in African-Americans with type 1 diabetes. Psychosom Med 2007; 69(6): 537-42.
 
36.
Yoshida S, Hirai M, Suzuki S, Awata S, Oka Y. Neuropathy is associated with depression independently of health-related quality of life in Japanese patients with diabetes. Psychiat Clin Neurosci 2008;63(1): 65-72.
 
37.
Moreira RO, Papelbaum M, Fontenelle LF, Appolinario JC, Ellinger VC, Coutinho WF. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and symmetric distal polyneuropathy among type II diabetic outpatients. Braz J Med Biol Res 2007;40(2):269-75.
 
38.
Boulanger L, Zhao Y, Bao Y, Russell MW. A retrospective study on the impact of comorbid depression or anxiety on healthcare resource use and costs among diabetic neuropathy patients. BMC Health Serv Res 2009;9:111.
 
39.
Boutoille D, Féraille A, Maulaz D, Krempf M. Quality of life with diabetes-associated foot complications: comparison between lowerlimb amputation and chronic foot ulceration. Foot Ankle Int 2008; 29(11):1074-8.
 
40.
Moreira RO, Amâncio AP, Brum HR, Vasconcelos DL, Nascimento GF. Depressive symptoms and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic distal polyneuropathy. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2009; 53(9):1103-11.
 
41.
Winkley K, Stahl D, Chalder T, Edmonds ME, Ismail K. Quality of life in people with their fi rst diabetic foot ulcer: a prospective cohort study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2009;99(5):406-414.
 
42.
Chazova TE, Voznesenskaia TG, Golitsyna TIu. Anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with acute coronary syndrome. Kardiologiia 2007;47(6):10-4.
 
43.
Hermanns N, Kulzer B, Krichbaum M, Kubiak T, Haak T. Aff ective and anxiety disorder in a German sample of diabetic patients. Prevalence, co-morbidity and risk factors. Diabet Med 2005; 22(3):293-300.
 
44.
Katon WJ, Russo J, Lin EH, Heckbert SR, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EJ. Depression and diabetes: factors associated with major depression at fi ve-year follow-up. Psychosomatics 2009;50(6):570-579.
 
45.
Simon GE, Katon WJ, Lin EH, Ludman E, VonKorff M, Ciechanowski P. Diabetes complications and depression as predictors of health service costs. Gen Hosp Psychiat 2005;27(5):344-351.
 
46.
Iype T, Shaji SK, Balakrishnan A, Charles D, Varghese AA, Antony TP. Cognition in type 2 diabetes: Association with vascular risk factors, complications of diabetes and depression. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2009;12(1):25-7.
 
47.
Katon WJ, Lin EH, Williams LH, Ciechanowski P, Heckbert SR, Ludman E. Comorbid depression is associated with an increased risk of dementia diagnosis in patients with diabetes: a prospective cohort study. J Gen Intern Med 2010;25(5):423-9.
 
48.
Gendelman N, Snell-Bergeon JK, McFann K, Kinney G, Paul Wadwa R, Bishop F. Prevalence and correlates of depression in individuals with and without type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:575-9.
 
49.
Kaczmarek A, Bodalski J. Obraz własnej choroby a poziom lęku i depresji u młodzieży chorującej na cukrzycę typu I. Przeg Ped 2008; 38:25-31.
 
50.
Mosaku K, Kolawole B, Mume C, Ikem R. Depression, anxiety and quality of life among diabetic patients: a comperative study. J Natl Med Assoc 2008;100:73-8.
 
51.
Northam EA, Matthews LK, Anderson PJ,Cameron FJ, Werther GA. Psychiatric morbidity and health outcome in type 1diabetes– perspectives from a prospective longitudinal study. Diabet Med 2005; 22:152-157.
 
52.
De Witt M, Pouwer F, Gemke JBJ. Validation of the WHO-5 Well-Being Index in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 8:2003- 2006.
 
53.
Amiel SA, Dixon T, Mann R, Jameson K. Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes, Diabet Med 2008;25:245-254.
 
54.
McAulay V, Deary IJ, Frier BM. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia in people with diabetes. Diabet Med 2001;18:690-705.
 
55.
Gill GV, Woodward A, Casson IF, Weston PJ. Cardiac arhytmia and nocturnal hypoglycaemia in type I diabetes – the dead in bed syndrome revisited. Diabetologia 2009;52:42-45.
 
56.
UK Hypoglycaemia Study Group. Risk of hypoglycaemia in types 1 and 2 diabetes: eff ects of treatment modalities and their duration, Diabetologia 2007;50:1140-1147.
 
57.
Frier BM. Morbidity of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabet Res Clin Prac 2004;65:S47–S52.
 
58.
Tuncay T, Musabak I, Engin Gok D, Kutlu M. Th e relationship between anxiety,coping strategies and characteristics of patients with diabetes. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008;6:79.
 
59.
Kokoszka A, Pouwer F, Jodko A, Radzio R, Mućko P, Bieńkowska J. Serious diabetes-specifi c emotional problems in patients with type 2 diabetes who have diff erent levels of comorbid depression: A Polish study from the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium. Eur Psychiatry 2009;24:25-30.
 
60.
Hemkens LG, Grouven U, BenderR, Günster C, Gutschmidt S, Selke GW, Sawicki PT. Risk of malignancies in patients with diabetes treated with human insulin or insulin analogues: a cohort study. Diabetologia 2009;52:1732-1744.
 
61.
Duncan BB, Schmidt MI. Metformin, Cancer, Alphabet Soup, and the Role of Epidemiology in Etiologic Research. Diabetes Care 2009;32(9):1748-1750.
 
62.
Smith U, Gale EAM. Does diabetes therapy infl uence the risk of cancer? Diabetologia 2009;52:1699-1708.
 
63.
Krister K, Boman KK, Viksten J, Kogner P, Samuelsson U. Serious illness in childhood: the diff erent threats of cancer and diabetes from a parent perspective. J Pediat 2004;145(3):373-379.
 
64.
Pouwer F. Should we screen for emotional distress in type 2 diabetes mellitus? Nat Rev Endocrinol 2009;5:665-71.
 
65.
Zhang CX, Chen YM, Chen WO. Association of psychosocial factors with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Res Clin Pr 2008;79:523-30.
 
66.
Aikens JE, Perkins DW, Lipton B, Piette JD. Longitudinal Analysis of Depressive Symptoms and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1177-1181.
 
67.
Egede LE. Diabetes, major depression and functional disability among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2004;27:421-428.
 
68.
Echeverry D, Duran P, Bonds C, Lee M, Davidson MB. Eff ect of Pharmacological Treatment of Depression on A1C and Quality of Life in Low-Income Hispanics and African Americans With Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:2156-2160.
 
69.
Anderson R, Gott BM, Sayuk GS, Freedland KE, Lustman PJ. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy in adults with type 2 diabetes. Rates and predictors of initial response. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 485–489.
 
70.
Fava M. Weight gain and antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(Suppl 11):37-41.
 
71.
Hill Golden S, Hochang BL, Schreiner PJ, Diez Roux A, Fitzpatrick AL, Szklo M, Lyketos C. Depression and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Th e Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Psychosm Med 2007;69: 529-536.
 
72.
Surwit RS, van Tilburg MA, Parekh PI, Lane JD, Feinglos MN. Treatment regimen determines the relationship between depression and glycemic control. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;69:78-80.
 
73.
Van Tilburg MA, McCaskill CC, Lane JD, Edwards CL, Bethel A, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS. Depressed mood is a factor in glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. Psychosom Med 2001;63:551-5.
 
74.
Kinder LS, Katon WJ, Ludman E, Russo J, Simon G, Lin EH. Improving depression care in patientes with diabetes and multiple complications. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21(10):1036-41.
 
75.
Ciechanowski PS, Katon WJ, Russo JE, Hirsch IB. Th e relationship of depressive symptoms to symptom reporting, self-care and glucose control in diabetes. Gen Hosp Psychiat 2003;25:246-52.
 
76.
Northam EA, Lin A, Finch S, Werther GA, Cameron FJ. Psychosocial Well-Being and Functional Outcomes in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes 12 years Aft er Disease Onset. Diabetes Care 2010;33:1430-1437.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966