Determinant factors of health in rural women in their perimenopausal period
More details
Hide details
Independent Practical Obstetric Skills Unit, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus   

Independent Practical Obstetric Skills Unit, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(1):96–100
The environment and lifestyle are known to exert an essential influence on the health of rural women in their perimenopausal period.

To assess the determinant factors of health in rural women in their perimenopausal period.

Material and Methods:
The study was carried out in 150 patients of the Gynecological Clinic of the Independent Public Heath Care Team (IPHCT) in Tomaszów Lubelski, southestern Poland, between 1 August 2010 – 30 April 2011. The women, aged 40-60 years, lived in a rural environment or villages. The study used a Menopause Health Questionnaire (MHQ) and Menopause Symptom Scale (MSS). Statistical analysis was based on Chi-Square Test, as well as U Mann-Whitney test, with a pertinence level of p<0.05. Data basis and statistics were collected using computer software STATISTICA 9.0 (StatSoft, Poland).

More than a half of the investigated patients lived in the country (60.00%), with the remainder coming from villages (40.00%). About two-thirds of the patients (66.00%) had completed college education, and the majority stated that their financial situation was bad (30.00%), or average (32.00%). Only every fifth woman (19.33%) regularly had a gynecological check-up each year. Signs of anxiety or a depressive mood appeared to depend essentially (respectively: p = 0.000; p = 0.02) on the professional status of the women. Only every fifth woman (20.7%) showed an appropriate weight. Just over a half of the rural women (50.67%) declared having a job.

Parente RC, Faerstein E, Celeste RK, Werneck GL. The relationship between smoking and age at menopause: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2008; 61(4): 287-298.
Sievert LL. Menopause as a measure of population health. An overview. Am J Hum Biol. 2001; 13: 429-34.
Nappi RE, Albani F, Santamaria V. Hormonal and psycho-relational aspects of sexual function during menopausal transition and at early menopause. Maturitas. 2010; 67(1): 78-83.
Makara-Studzińska M, Wdowiak A, Bakalczuk B, Bakalczuk B. Wpływ terapii hormonalnej na poziom depresji i jakość życia kobiet w wieku okołomenopauzalnym, zamieszkujących tereny wiejskie. Przegl Menopauz. 2009; 5: 284-289.
Borud E, White A. A review of acupuncture for menopausal symptoms. Maturitas. 2010; 66(2): 131-134.
Dębski E, Paszkowski T, Pawelczyk L, Pertyński T. Terapia hormonalna okresu menopauzalnego. Stanowisko zespołu ekspertów Polskiego Towarzystwa Menopauzy i Andropauzy. Przegl Menopauz. 2010; 3: 121-127.
Greendale GA, Gold EB. Lifestyle factors: are they related to vasomotor symptoms and do they modify the effectiveness or side effects of hormone therapy? Am J Med. 2005; 118 Suppl 12B: 148-154.
Reynolds RF, Obermeyer CM. Correlates of the age AT natura menopause in Morocoo. Ann Hum Biol. 2003; 30: 95-108.
Karczmarek M, Szwed A. Age AT menopause and reproductive determinantis in Polish women. Przegl Antropol Anthropol Rev. 2001; 64: 7-72.
Currie H. Assessing CVD risk after the menopause. Practice Nursing. 2008; 19(7): 335-338.
Saluk-Juszczak J, Joanna Kołodziejczyk J, Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak M, Pawlaczyk I, Wachowicz B, Gancarz R. Rośliny rodzaju Agrimonia – ich biologiczna aktywność i perspektywy zastosowania w medycynie. Cz. I. Przegl Menopauz. 2011; 5: 415-418.
Lindh-Astrand L, Nedstrand E, Wyon Y, Hammar M. Vasomotor symptoms and quality of life in previously sedentary postmenopausal women randomised to physical activity or estrogen therapy. Maturitas. 2004; 48(2): 97-105.
Synowiec-Piłat M. Wybrane społeczne wyznaczniki jakości życia 50-letnich Polek w kontekście ich sytuacji zdrowotnej. Przegl Menopauz. 2010; 6: 385-389.
Towey M, Bundy C, Cordingley L. Psychological and social interventions in the menopause. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 18(4): 413-417.
Klein P: Mood and the menopause. In: Studd J. The management of the menopause. Parthenon Publishing Group, London 2003: 95-109.
Wilczak M, Samulak D, Mojs E, Michalska MM, Ziarko M. Zaburzenia snu oraz emocji u kobiet stosujących hormonalną terapię zastępczą. Przegl Menopauz. 2011; 2: 147-152.
Brazier E.J, Roberts J, Platts M, Zoellner FY. Estimating a preference-based index for a menopause specific health quality of life questionnaire. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2005; 3: 13-20.
Stachowiak G. Choroby układu sercowo- naczyniowego u kobiet w wieku około- i pomenopauzalnym. Służba Zdrowia 2000; 5: 18-19.
Sygit K, Kołłątaj W, Sygit M, Kołłątaj B. The impast of economic factors on the realities of outpatient multi-drug treatment of chronic diseases in rural areas. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18: 29-34.
Lew-Starowicz Z. Seksualność w okresie menopauzy. Przew Lek. 2000; 4: 2-8.
Lew-Starowicz Z, Szymańska M. Zaburzenia seksualne i problemy osobiste kobiet powyżej 45. roku życia. Przegl Menopauz. 2010; 6: 381-384.
Krzyżak M, Maślak D, Bielska-Lasota M, Juczewska M, Rabczenko D, Marcinkowski JT, Szpak A. Breast cacer survival gap between urban and rural female population in podlaskie voivodship, Poland, in 2001-2002 population study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 17: 277-282.
Geller SE, Studee L. Botanical and dietary supplements for menopausal symptoms: what works, what doesn’t. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2005; 14: 634-649.
Grycewicz J, Cypryk K. Wpływ hormonów płciowych na występowanie zaburzeń metabolicznych u kobiet w okresie menopauzy. Przegl Menopauz. 2008; 1: 29-37.
Połać I. Otyłość u kobiet w okresie pomenopauzalnym. Służba Zdrowia 2000; 3: 16-19.
Zatoński W.A. Epidemiological analysis of health situation development in Europe and its causes until 1990. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 194-202.
Świnoga M, Kłos M, Miniszewska J, Zalewska-Janowska A. Health-related quality of life in dermatological and allergo-dermatological patients. Post Dermatol Alergol. 2012; XXIX(2): 69-73.