RESEARCH PAPER
Detection of CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI in feral pigeons (COLUMBA LIVIA DOMESTICA) in Slovakia and their characterisation
 
More details
Hide details
1
P. J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Košice, Slovak Republic
2
University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Parasitology, Košice, Slovak Republic
3
University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Biology and Genetics, Košice, Slovak Republic
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Monika Halánová   

P. J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Košice, Slovak Republic
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(1):75–78
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objectives:
Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular bacterium, which is the etiologic agent of avian chlamydiosis in birds and ornithosis/psittacosis in humans, has been reported to be one of the most common pathogens found in feral pigeons worldwide, and thus constitutes a zoonotic risk. The aim of the study was to investigate pigeons in Slovakia living in areas in close proximity to humans for the presence of C. psittaci, using pharyngeal and cloacal swabs.

Material and Methods:
122 clinically healthy pigeons from different geographical regions of Slovakia were examined for the presence of C. psittaci. The adult pigeons of both genders were captured during the summer period in the urban centres of Slovakian towns. Each sample was examined by molecular method PCR, and in the case of positive result the identity of the obtained sequence was examined by a BLAST search.

Results:
Of the total number of 244 examined samples, 14 (5.7%) showed positivity for C. psittaci infection, 5 of which were from pharyngeal swabs (4.1%) and 9 from cloacal swabs (7.4%). A positive result was detected in 13 pigeons (10.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the positive samples are genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E.

Conclusions:
Phylogenetic examination of the 14 isolates of C. psittaci identified in the presented study, based on 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed their close relationship with C. psittaci genotypes B and E. Both genotypes are predominantly prevalent in pigeons and both can be transmitted to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening examinations of animals and analyse the epidemiological factors affecting the way of transmission and circulation of pathogen.

 
REFERENCES (29)
1.
Vorimore F, Hsia RC, Huot-Creasy H, Bastian S, Deruyter L, Passet A, et al. Isolation of a new Chlamydia species from the Feral Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis Aethiopicus): Chlamydia ibidis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9): e74823.
 
2.
Sachse K, Bavoil PM, Kaltenboeck B, Stephens RS, Kuo Ch, Rosselló-Móra R, et al. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: Proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species. Sys App Micro. 2015; 38: 99–103.
 
3.
Andersen AA, Vanrompay D. Avian chlamydiosis (psittacosis, ornithosis). Saif YM, ed. Diseases of Poultry, 11th edition, Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA. 2003; 863–879.
 
4.
Longbottom D, Coulter LJ. Animal chlamydioses and zoonotic implications. J Comp Pathol. 2003; 128(4): 217–244.
 
5.
Andersen AA. Two new serovars of Chlamydia psittaci from North American birds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1997; 9(2): 159–164.
 
6.
Everett KDE, Bush RM, Andersen AA. Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Inter J Syst Bacter. 1999; 49(2): 415–440.
 
7.
Harkinezhad T, Geens T, Vanrompay D. Chlamydophila psittaci infections in birds: a review with emphasis on zoonotic consequences. Vet Microbiol. 2009; 135(1–2): 68–77.
 
8.
Magnino S, Haag-Wackernagel D, Geigenfeind I, Helmecke S, Dovc A, Prukner-Radovcic E, et al. Chlamydial infections in feral pigeons in Europe: review of data and focus on public health implications. Vet Microbiol. 2009; 135(1–2): 54–67.
 
9.
Pruckner-Radovcic E, Horvatek D, Gottstein Y, Grozdanic IC, Mazija H. Epidemiological investigation of Chlamydophila psittaci in pigeons and free living birds in Croatia. Vet Res Commun. 2005; 29: 17–21.
 
10.
Ceglie L, Lafisca S, Guadagno C, Dalla Pozza G, Capello K, Bano L, et al. Serological surveillance in north-eastern Italy for the presence of Chlamydophila spp. from birds and molecular characterisation of PCR isolates within the area of Venice. Proceedings of the 5 th Annual Workshop of COST Action 855 “Animal chlamydioses and its zoonotic implications”, Pulawy (Poland), September. 2007; 10–11: 62–67.
 
11.
Vlahovič K, Matica B, Bata I, Pavlak M, Pavičič Ž, Popovič M, et al. Campylobacter, salmonella and chlamydia in freeliving birds of Croatia. Eur J Wildl Res. 2004; 50: 127–132.
 
12.
Haag-Wackernagel D. Human diseases caused by feral pigeons. In: Chris, J., Feare, David, P., Cowan, (Eds.), Advances in Vertebrate Pest Management 4. Filander Verlag, Fürth, 2006; 31–58.
 
14.
Kaleta EF, Taday EM. Avian host range of Chlamydophila spp. based on isolation, antigen detection and serology. Avian Pathol. 2003; 32(5): 435–461.
 
15.
Pinkerton H, Swank RL. Recovery of virus morphologically identical with psittacosis from thiamin-deficient pigeons. Proc Soc Exp Bio Med. 1940; 45: 704–706.
 
16.
Meyer KF. Pigeons and barn yard fowls as possible sources of human psittacosis or ornithosis. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1941; 44: 1377–1379.
 
17.
Haag-Wackernagel D. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential source of human ornithosis. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Workshop of COST Action 855‘‘Animal chlamydioses and its zoonotic implications’’, Siena, Italy, September 22–23. 2005; 15–17.
 
18.
Heddema ER, Beld MG, de Wever B, Langerak AA, Pannekoek Y, Duim B. Development of an internally controlled real-time PCR assay for detection of Chlamydophila psittaci in the LightCycler 2.0 system. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006; 12(6): 571–575.
 
19.
Dickx V, Beeckman DS, Dossche L, Tavernier P, Vanrompay D. Chlamydophila psittaci in homing and feral pigeons and zoonotic transmission. J Med Microbiol. 2010; 59(11): 1348–1353.
 
20.
Geigenfeind I, Vanrompay D, Haag-Wackernagel D. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in the feral pigeon population of Basel, Switzerland. J Med Microbiol. 2012; 61(2): 261–265.
 
21.
Vázquez B, Esperón F, Neves E, López J, Ballesteros C, Muñoz MJ. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid. Acta Vet Scand. 2010; 52(1): 45.
 
22.
Zweifel D, Hoop R, Sachse K, Pospischil A, Borel N. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in wild birds — potential risk for domestic poultry, pet birds, and public health. Eur J Wild Life Res. 2009; 55: 575–581.
 
23.
Řeháček J, Brezina R. Ornithosis in domestic pigeons gone wild in Bratislava. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, J Hyg Epidemiol. 1976; 20: 252–253.
 
24.
Řeháček J, Kocianová E, Brezina R. Možný význam mestských populácií holubov Columba livia f. domestica pri šírení C. burneti a Ch. psittaci v Bratislave. Biol. 1984; 39: 293–300.
 
25.
Kociánová E, Řeháček J, Lisák V. Transmission of antibodies to Chlamydia psittaci and Coxiella burneti through eggs and “Crop milk” in pigeons. Eur J Epidemiol. 1993; 9: 209–212.
 
26.
Čisláková L, Dietzová Z, Prokopčáková H. Ornitóza u mestských zdivočelých holubov Columba livia f. domestica v Košiciach. Vet Med Czech. 1998; 43: 361–363.
 
27.
Trániček M, Čisláková L, Deptula W, Stosik M, Bhide MR. Wild pigeons and pheasants – a source of Chlamydophila psittaci for human and animals. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002; 9: 253–255.
 
28.
Sulinová Z, Halánová M, Molnár L, Čisláková L, Páleník Ľ, Halán M. Chlamydophila psittaci in pigeons – are the feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) a dangerous source of chlamydial infection? Fol Vet. 2011; 55(1): 42–44.
 
29.
Bakoss P, Macháčová E, Jareková J, Gacíková E, Čisláková L, Halánová M, et al. Surveillance zoonóz: Slovenská republika, Leptospirózy 2009–2011: ornitóza – psitakóza a cicavčie chlamydiózy 2004–2011. Bratislava: Štátna veterinárna a potravinová správa Slovenskej republiky, 1. ed., 2013; 104 pp.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966