RESEARCH PAPER
Association between PM10 air pollution and birth weight after full-term pregnancy in Krakow city 1995–2009 – trimester specificity
 
More details
Hide details
1
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Krakow, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(2):265–270
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
The results of epidemiological studies indicate that the higher maternal exposure to air pollution, especially with particulate matter during pregnancy, the lower the infant’s birth weight. The aim of this study was to estimate entire pregnancy and trimester-specific exposure of pregnant women in the city of Krakow, southern Poland, to fine particulate matter [≤10 µg (PM10)], and to assess its effect on the birth weight of boys and girls separately.

Material and Methods:
The study group consisted of 85,000 singleton, live, full-term births in Krakow city during a 15-year period (data from the birth registry). The mean concentrations of the pollutant for each month of gestation were estimated using continuous municipal monitoring data.

Results:
Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the mean PM10 concentration during entire pregnancy was inversely associated with birth weight in girls and the group of boys and girls combined, after adjusting for maternal age, gestational age and year of birth; in boys the relationship was not statistically significant. Maternal exposure to PM10 during the first trimester was negatively associated with birth weight separately in girls and boys, and the group of boys and girls combined. However, the PM10 exposure during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with birth weight.

Conclusions:
PM10 air pollution at levels currently encountered in Krakow city adversely affect infant birth weight; however, the effect seems to be very small. The influence of particulate air pollution on foetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations for the results, but further research is needed to establish possible biological mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was carried out within the framework of Project No. N N404 055 136, financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Warsaw.
 
REFERENCES (26)
1.
Bobak M. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108(2): 173–176.
 
2.
Hansen C, Neller A, Williams G & Simpson R. Maternal exposure to low levels of ambient air pollution and preterm birth in Brisbane, Australia. BJOG. 2006;113(8): 935–941.
 
3.
Dejmek J, Solansky I, Benes I, Lenicek J&Sram RJ The impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fine particles on pregnancy outcome. Environ Health Perspect.2000; 108(12): 1159–1164.
 
4.
Loomis D, Castillejos M, Gold DR, McDonnell W&Borja-Aburto VH. Air pollution and infant mortality in Mexico City. Epidemiology 1999; 10(2): 118–123.
 
5.
Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Manzanares S, Dadvand P, Schembar A, RankinJ, et al. Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect.2011; 119(5): 598–606.
 
6.
Wang X, Ding H, Ryan L&Xu X. Association between air pollution and low birth weight: a community-based study. Environ Health Perspect.1997; 105(5): 514–520.
 
7.
Chen L, Yang W, Jennison BL, Goodrich A&Omaye ST. Air pollution and birth weight in northern Nevada, 1991–1999. Inhal Toxicol. 2002; 14(2): 141–157.
 
8.
Salam MT, Millstein J, L, YF, Lurmann FW, Margoli, HG&Gilliland FD. Birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter: results from the Children’s Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(11): 1638–1644.
 
9.
Gouveia N, Bremner SA&Novaes HM Association between ambient air pollution and birth weight in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004; 58(1): 11–17.
 
10.
Lee BE, Ha EH, Park HS, Kim YJ, Hong YC, Kim H, et al. Exposure to air pollution during different gestational phases contributes to risks of low birth weight. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18(3): 638–643.
 
11.
Xu X, Sharma RK, Talbott EO, Zborowski JV, Rager J, Arena VC, et al. PM10 air pollution exposure during pregnancy and term low birth weight in Allegheny County, PA, 1994–2000. Int Arch Occup Environ Health.2011; 84(3): 251–257.
 
12.
Stańczak A, Znajewska A. Size and structure of population and vital statistics by territorial division in 2010 As of December 31. Central Statistical Office of Poland, Warszawa 2011 http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/584... (access: 2013.04.22).
 
13.
Maisonet M, Bush TJ, Correa A&Jaakkola JJK. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the northeastern United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2001; 109: 351–356.
 
14.
Paige D, Davis LR. Fetal growth, maternal nutrition, and dietary supplementation. Clin Nutr.1986; 5:191–199.
 
15.
Ha EH, Hong YC, Lee BE, Woo BH, Schwartz J&Christiani DC. Is air pollution a risk factor for low birth weight in Seoul? Epidemiology 2001; 12(6): 643–648.
 
16.
Ghosh R, Rankin J, Pless-Mullol, T&Glinianaia S. Does the effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes differ by gender? A systematic review. Environmental Research 2007; 105(3): 400–408.
 
17.
Jedrychowski W, Perera F, Mrozek-Budzyn D, Mroz E, Flak E, Spengler, JD, et al. Gender differences in fetal growth of newborns exposed prenatally to airborne fine particulate matter. Environmental Research 2009; 109(4): 447–456.
 
18.
Rubin DH, Krasilnikoff PA, Leventhal, JM, Weile B&Berget A. Effect of Passive Smoking on Birth-Weight. Lancet 1986; 2(8504): 415–417.
 
19.
Brooke OG, Anderson HR, Bland JM, Peacock JL&Stewart CM. Effects on Birth-Weight of Smoking, Alcohol, Caffeine, Socioeconomic-Factors, and Psychosocial Stress. BMJ. 1989; 298(6676): 795–801.
 
20.
Jedrychowski W, Bendkowska I, Flak E, Penar A, Jacek R, Kaim I, et al. Estimated risk for altered fetal growth resulting from exposure to fine particles during pregnancy: an epidemiologic prospective cohort study in Poland. Environ Health Perspect. 2004; 112(14): 1398–1402.
 
21.
Kannan S, Misra DP, Dvonch JT&Krishnakumar A. Exposures to airborne particulate matter and adverse perinatal outcomes: a biologically plausible mechanistic framework for exploring potential effect modification by nutrition. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114(11): 1636–1642.
 
22.
Warner MJ&Ozanne SE Mechanisms involved in the developmental programming of adulthood disease. Biochemical Journal 2010; 427: 333–347.
 
23.
Peters A, Frohlich M, Doring A, Immervoll T, Wichmann HE, Hutchinson WL, et al. Particulate air pollution is associated with an acute phase response in men; results from the MONICA-Augsburg Study. Eur Heart J. 2001; 22(14): 1198–1204.
 
24.
Xu G, Umezawa M&Takeda K Early Development Origins of Adult Disease Caused by Malnutrition and Environmental Chemical Substances. JHS. 2009; 55(1): 11–19.
 
25.
Tsukue N, Yoshida S, Sugawara I&Takeda K. Effect of diesel exhaust on development of fetal reproductive function in ICR female mice. JHS. 2004; 50(2): 174–180.
 
26.
Barker DJ. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ. 1995; 311(6998): 171–174.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966