Antibody reactivity in patients with IgE-mediated wheat allergy to various subunits and fractions of gluten and non-gluten proteins from ω-gliadin-free wheat genotypes
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Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Kraków, Poland
Department of Clinical and Environmental Allergology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Radzików, Poland
Iwona Stawoska   

Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Kraków, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(2):229–236
Introduction and objective:
Gluten proteins (gliadins and glutenins) are polymorphic wheat storage proteins of allergenic properties. Significant differences in chemical composition between both protein groups allow to expect highly specific immunological response of individual subunits and fractions in reactions with IgE sera of people allergic to wheat. The aim of these studies was to identify and characterize the most allergenic gluten proteins (GP) and nongluten proteins (NGP) occurred in two closely related wheat hybrid genotypes.

Material and Methods:
3xC and 3xN wheat hybrids, which differ strongly in regard of gliadin composition, were analyzed. Seven people manifesting different symptoms of wheat allergy donated sera for the experiment. The technique of immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE was used for identification of allergenic subunits and fractions among GP and NGP. Immunologically active protein bands were visualized by chemiluminescence.

Great variation of immunodetection spectra was observed. Results of immunoblotting showed LMW glutenins to be of highest, gliadins of medium, while NGP of lowest allergenicity for selected patients. The 43-kDa and 47-kDa LMW glutenin subunits, 40-kDa and 43-kDa γ-gliadin fractions and 49-kDa NGP can be considered as the most immunoreactive among all protein bands [b]separated by SDS-PAGE.

The observed differentiation of immunodetection spectra allows to model highly specific IgE-binding profiles of allergenic wheat proteins attributed to individual patients with symptoms of gluten intolerance. Highly immunoreactive subunits and fractions among GP and NGP were identified. The observed immunoreactivity of 49 kDa NGP is worth to emphasize, as it has never been reported as wheat allergenic protein before.

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