Effect of centrifuge test on blood serum lipids index of cadet pilots
More details
Hide details
Department of Physical Education, Polish Air Force Academy, Dęblin, Poland
Aeromedical Training Division, Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Basic Physiotherapy, Academy of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
Corresponding author
Zbigniew Wochyński   

Department of Physical Education, Polish Air Force Academy, Dęblin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(1):1-5
Introduction and objective:
This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge.

Material and Methods:
The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N=11) included cadets subjected to a shorter total duration of exposure to +Gz, while group II (N=8) included cadets with a longer total duration of exposure to +Gz. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoproteins A1 and B were assayed in blood serum prior to (assay A) and after (assay B) both exposures to +Gz. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was estimated from the Friedewald formula. WS is an own mathematical algorithm.

WS was higher in group II, assay A – 10.0 and B – 10.08 of test I in the human centrifuge than in group I where the WS values were 6.91 and 6.96, respectively. WS was also higher in group II in assay A – 10.0 and B -10.1 of test II in the human centrifuge than in group I – 6.96 and 6.80, respectively.

The higher value of WS in group II, both after the first and second exposure to +Gz in human centrifuge, in comparison with group I, indicated its usefulness for determination of the maximum capability of applying acceleration of the interval type during training in the human centrifuge.

Baldin UI, Myhre K, Tesch PA, Wilhelmsen U, Andersen HAT. Isometric abdominal muscle training and G tolerance. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1985; 56: 120–124.
Burton RR, Whinnery J E, Foster EM. Anaerobic energetic of the simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM). Aviat Space Environ Med. 1987; 58: 761–767.
Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Williams PT, Haskell WL. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. New Eng J Med. 1991; 325: 461–466.
Wochyński Z, Sobiech KA, Majda J. Wskaźnik lipidowy (WS) w ocenie wydolności fizycznej. Nowiny Lekarskie. 2005; 1: 39–44 (in Polish).
Wochyński Z, Sobiech KA, Majda J. Ocena progu adaptacji wysiłkowej żołnierzy za pomocą wskaźnika lipidowego w aspekcie kwalifikowania do testów sprawności fizycznej. Lek Wojsk. 2001; 77: 218–221 (in Polish).
Wochyński Z, Sobiech KA, Majda J. The impact of long distance runs on soldier`s lipids index (WS)” „International Congress on soldier`s physical exercise perfomance”. Jyväskylä 2005: 135.
Karmowski A, Sobiech KA, Markuszewski M, Majda J, Łątkowski K, Karmowski, et al. Values of the hormone replacement therapy in the postmenopausal women. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2005; 14(4): 725–729.
Rita N, King ME. Immunoturbidimetric assays of apolipoproteins A, AI, AII, and B in serum. Clin Chem. 1986; 6: 957–961.
Chen H-H, Wu Y-C, Kuo M-D. An electromyographic assessment of anti-G straining maneuver. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004; 75: 162–167.
Oksa J, Hamalainen O, Rissanen S, Myllyniemi J, Kuromen P. Muscle strain during aerial combat maneuvering exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996; 67: 1138–1143.
Frey MAB, Doerr BM, Srivastava LS., Glueck CJ. Exercise training sex hormones, and lipoprotein relationships in men. J Appl Physiol. 1983; 54: 757–762.
Olchawa B, Kingwell BA, Hoang A, Schneider L, Miyazaki O, Nestel P. et al. Physical fitness and reverse cholesterol transport. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24: 1–6.
Tikkanen HO, Härkönen M, Näweri H, Hämäläinen E, Elovainio R, Sarna S. et al. Relationship of skeletal muscle fiber type to serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A₁ levels. Atherosclerosis 1991; 90: 49–57.
Wochyński Z, Majda J, Sobiech KA. Zmiany wskaźników hematologicznych i biochemicznych u lekkoatletów pod wpływem treningu wytrzymałościowo – szybkościowego. Wych Fiz i Sport. 1998; 3: 39–47.
Schele R, Kaiser P. Running performance and muscle fibers types. In: Komi PV(ed.). Exercise and sport biology. Human Kinetics Publ. Champaign, Illinois 1982.pp.84–89.
Shono N, Urata H, Saltin B, Mizuno M, Harada T, Shindo M, et al. Effects of low intensity aerobic training on skeletal muscle capillary and blood lipoprotein profiles. J Atherioscler Thromb. 2002; 9: 78–85.
Shono N, Mizuro M, Nishida H, Higaki Y, Urata H, Tanaka H. et al. Decreased skeletal muscle capillary density is related to higher serum levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in men. Metabolism 1999; 48: 1267–1271.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top