RESEARCH PAPER
Validation of the Polish language version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in a population of adults aged 35–64
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
2
Chair and Department of Paediatric Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
3
Department of General and Neuro Rehabilitation, Witold Chodźko Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
 
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Depressive disorders are one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Recognition of signs of mental health disorders is not always easy, hence the availability of simple and accurate tools for assessing them is very important in the practice of primary care.

Objective:
The aim of the study is to assess the theoretical accuracy and reliability of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) in Polish conditions, when applied to general population studies for adults aged between 35–64.

Material and methods:
The study comprised a population of 4,040 people. Women constituted 59% of the research population and people living in the countryside 65%. The average age of participants was 53.45 ± 7.05 years. According to PHQ-9, 727 people (18.0%) had moderate, moderate to severe or severe depression. PHQ-9 showed a significant positive internal cohesion (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.77), and factor charges oscillated between 0.43–0.63, and the R2 coefficients of determination were in the range of 0.21–0.40.

Conclusions:
The Polish version of PHQ-9 is a valid tool for diagnosing depression in the general population aged 35–64. Good psychometric properties and compactness make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Barbara Janina Ślusarska   
Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lublin, Poland, Ul. Staszica 6/10 20-081 Lublin, 20-081 Lublin, Poland
 
REFERENCES (20):
1. Rybakowski J, Pużyński S, Wciórka J. (eds). Psychiatria. T. 2. Wrocław: Elsevier Urban & Partner, 2010, pp. 305–375.
2. Pużyński S, Wciórka J. Klasyfikacja zaburzeń psychicznych i zaburzeń zachowania w ICD-10. Opisy kliniczne i wskazówki diagnostyczne. Kraków: UWM Vesalius, 2007, pp. 107–116.
3. Kessler RC, Bromet EJ. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annu Rev Public Health 2013; 34(1): 119–138.
4. Kiejna A, Piotrowski P, Adamowski T, et al. Rozpowszechnienie wybranych zaburzeń psychicznych w populacji dorosłych Polaków z odniesieniem do płci i struktury wieku – badanie EZOP Polska. Psychiatr Pol. 2015; 49: 15–27.
5. Drożdż W, Wojnar M, Araszkiewicz A, et al. The study of the prevalence of depressive disorders in primary care patients in Poland. Wiad Lek. 2007; 60: 109–113.
6. Osińska M, Kazberuk A, Celińska-Janowicz K, Zadykowicz R, Rysiak E. Depression – civilization disease of the 21st century. Geriatria 2017; 11: 123–129.
7. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961; 4: 561–571.
8. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ Primary Care Study. JAMA 1999; 282: 1737–1744.
9. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983; 67: 361–370.
10. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, Leirer VO. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res. 1983; 17: 37–49.
11. Jasik K, Jaślikowska U, Zbrojkiewicz M, Ślusarska B, Jasińska M, Grzegorczyk M, Nowicki G. Factors related to occurrence of depressive disorders in adults. A systematic review of Polish literature in years 2009–2014. J Educ Health Sport. 2016; 6(4): 297–318. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zeno....
12. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC 2013.
13. Tomaszewski K, Zarychta M, Bieńkowska A, Chmurowicz E, Nowak W, Skalska A. Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Polish version in the hospitalized elderly population. Psychiatr Pol. 2011; XLV(2): 223–233.
14. Kokoszka A, Jastrzębski A, Obrębski M. Psychometric properties of the polish version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Psychiatry 2016; 13, 4: 187–193.
15. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, The PHQ-9 Validity of a Brief Depression Severity Measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 16(9): 606–613. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.
16. Cameron IM, Crawford JR, Lawton K, Reid IC. Psychometric comparison of PHQ-9 and HADS for measuring depression severity in primary care. British J General Practice 2008; 58: 32–36. DOI: 10.3399/bjgp08X263794.
17. Wang W, Bian Q, Zhao Y, Li X, Wang W, Du J, Zhang G, Zhou Q, Zhao M. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014; 36(5): 539–44. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.05.021.
18. AlHadi AN, AlAteeq DA, Al-Sharif E, Hamdah M, Bawazeer HM, Alanazi H, AlShomrani AT, Shuqdar RM, AlOwaybil R. An arabic translation, reliability, and validation of Patient Health Questionnaire in a Saudi sample. Ann Gen Psychiatry 2017; 16: 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991....
19. Siu AL, US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for depression in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2016; 315(4): 380–387. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18392.
20. Thase TE. Recommendations for Screening for Depression in Adults. JAMA. 2016; 315(4): 349–350. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18406.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966