Study of the non-parasitic stage in Ixodes ricinus after co-feeding with Dermacentor reticulatus in three infestations
More details
Hide details
Cgair and Department of Biology and Parasitology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Non-Public Health Care Center Med-Laser, Lublin, Poland
Department of Basic Nursing and Medical Teaching, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Katarzyna Bartosik   

Cgair and Department of Biology and Parasitology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(1):90–95
It was proved that transmission of some pathogens may occur between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on a host in the absence of systemic infection. The effect was studied of co-feeding of two different tick species Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus on the course of the non-parasitic stage. Species chosen for the experiment may share their habitats and co-infest animals in nature. In the course of the study the process of egg maturation, oviposition and larval hatching were investigated. In order to estimate if co-feeding influence can counteract host immunity, three subsequent infestations of rabbits were analyzed. Mono-specific groups values of such a parameters as egg amount, number of eggs per 1 mg of female engorgement weight, female oviposition weight loss, hatching success were higher in inter-specific groups were compared. The results indicate that co-feeding with other tick species may partially reduce the influence of host resistance in subsequent infestation.
Kahl O, Janetzki C, Gray JS, Stein J, Bauch RJ. Tick infection rates with Borrelia: Ixodes ricinus versus Haemaphysalis concinna and Dermacentor reticulatus in two locations in eastern Germany. Med Vet Entomol. 1992; 6(4): 363–366.
Stanko M, Miklasova D. Infestation trends of two rodent species (Rodentia, Muridae) on the East Slovakian lowland. In: Buczek A, Błaszak C, editors. Arthropods in Medicine. Lublin: Liber. 2002: 105–114.
Földvári G, Farkas R. Ixodid tick species attaching to dogs in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 129(1–2): 125–131.
Bursali A, Keskin A, Tekin S. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting humans in the provinces of Kelkit Valley, a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever endemic region in Turkey. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013; 59(4): 507–515.
Gern L, Rais O. Efficient transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi between cofeeding Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1996; 33(1): 189–192.
Labuda M, Alves MJ, Eleckova E, Kozuch O, Filipe AR. Transmission of tick-borne bunyaviruses by cofeeding ixodid ticks. Acta Virol. 1997; 41(6): 325–328.
Buczek A, Bartosik K, Zając Z, Stanko M. Host-feeding behaviour of Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor marginatus in mono-specific and inter-specific infestations. Parasit Vectors. 2015; 8: 470.
Bowessidjaou J, Brossard M, Aeschlimann A. Effects and duration of resistance acquired by rabbits on feeding and egg laying in Ixodes ricinus L. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1977; 33(4): 528–530.
Jittapalapong S, Stich RW, Gordon JC, Wittum TE, Barriga OO. Performance of female Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on dogs exposed to multiple infestations of immunization with tick salivary gland or midgut tissues. J Med Entomol. 2000; 37(4): 601–611.
Papatheodorou V, Brossard M. C3 levels in the sera of rabbits infested and reinfested with Ixodes ricinus L. and in midguts of fed ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 1987; 3(1): 53–59.
Brossard M, Wikel SK. Immunology of interactions between ticks and hosts. Med Vet Entomol. 1997; 11(3): 270–276.
Willadsen P, Jongejan F. Immunology of the tick-host interaction and the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Parasitol Today. 1999; 15(7): 258–262.
Barriga OO, Andujar F, Andrzejewski WJ. Manifestations of immunity in sheep repeatedly infested with Amblyomma americanum ticks. J Parasitol. 1991; 77(5): 703–709.
Ribeiro JM, Makoul GT, Levine J, Robinson DR, Spielman A. Antihemostatic, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of the saliva of a tick, Ixodes dammini. J Exp Med. 1985; 161(2): 332–344.
Wikel SK. Tick modulation of host immunity: an important factor in pathogen transmission. Int J Parasitol. 1999; 29(6): 851–859.
Allen J R, Khalil HM, Graham JE. The location of salivary antigens, complement and immunoglobulin in the skin of guinea-pigsinfested with Dermacentor andersoni larvae. Immunology 1979; 38(3): 467–472.
Buczek A, Kuśmierz A, Olszewski K, Buczek L, Czerny K, Łańcut M. 2002. Comparsion of rabbit skin changes after feeding of Ixodes ricinus (L.) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabr.). In: Bernini F, Nannelli R, Nuzzaci G, de Lillo E, editors. Acarid Phylogeny and Evolution: Adaptation in Mites and ticks. Dordrecht: Kulwer Academic Publisher. 2002; 419–424.
Olszewski K, Kuśmierz A, Buczek L, Buczek A. Skin changes caused by feeding of Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in the electron microscope. In: Buczek A, Błaszak C, editors. Arthropods in Medicine. Lublin: Liber. 2002; 197–203 (in Polish).
Ribeiro JM, Spielman A. Ixodes dammini: salivary anaphylatoxin inactivating activity. Exp Parasitol. 1986; 62(2): 45–51.
Buczek A, Buczek L, Kuśmierz A, Olszewski K. Skin changes in rabbit skin caused by ticks (Acari: Ixodida). In: Buczek A, Błaszak C, editors. Parasitic and Alergogenic Arthropods. Lublin: KGM. 2000; 171–182 (in Polish).
Szabo MPJ, Bechara GH. Sequential histopathology at the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick feeding site on dogs and guinea pigs. Exp Appl Acarol. 1999; 23(11): 915–928.
Gregson JD. Observations on the movement of fluids in the vicinity of the mouthparts of naturally feeding Dermacentor andersoni Stiles. Parasitology 1967; 57(1): 1–8.
Ackerman S, Claire FB, McGill TW, Sonenshine DE. Passage of host serum components, including antibody, across digestive tract of Dermacentor variabilis (Say). J Parasitol. 1981; 67(5): 737–740.
Brossard M, Rais O. Passage of haemolysing through the midgut epithelium of female Ixodes ricinus L. fed on rabbits infected or reinfected with ticks. Experientia. 1984; 40: 561–562.
Fujisaki K, Kamio T, Kitaoka S. Passage of host serum components, including anti-bodies specific for Theileria sergenti, across the digestive tract of argasid and ixodid ticks. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1984; 78(4): 449–450.
Ben-Yakir D. Quantitative studies of host immunoglobulin G in the hemolymph of ticks (Acari). J Med Entomol. 1989; 26(4): 243–246.
Need JT, Butler JF. Possible application of the immune response of laboratory mice to the feeding of argasid ticks. J Med Entomol. 1991; 28(2): 250–253.
Wang H, Nuttall PA. Extraction of host immunoglobulin in the saliva and detection of igG- binding protein in tick hemolymph and salivary gland. Parasitology 1994; 109(4): 525–530.
Wang H, Nuttall PA. Comparison of the proteins in salivary gland, saliva, and haemolymph of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus female ticks during feeding. Parasitology 1994; 109(4): 517–523.
McTier T, George J, Bennett S. Resistance and cross-resistance of guinea pigs to Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, D. variabilis (Say), Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus), and Ixodes scapularis Say. J Parasitol. 1981; 67(6): 813–822.
Latif AA. Resistance to Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Koch (1844) and Rhipicephalus evertsi Neumann (1897) (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) by cattle in the Sudan. Insect Sci Appl. 1984; 5(6): 509–511.
Allen JR. Immunology of interactions between ticks and laboratory animals. Exp Appl Acarol. 1989; 7(1): 5–13.
De Castro JJ, Newson RM, Herbert IV. Resistance in cattle against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus with an assessment of cross-resistance to R. pulchellus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1989; 6(3): 237–244.
Rechav Y, Heller-Haupt A, Varma MG. Resistance and cross-resistance in guinea pigs and rabbits to immature stages of ixodid ticks. Med Vet Entomol. 1989; 3(4): 333–336.
Heller-Haupt A, Kagaruki LK, Varma MGR. Resistance and cross-resistance in rabbits to adults of three species of African ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1996; 20(3): 155–165.
Parmar A, Grewal AS, Dhillon P. Immunological crossreactivity between salivary gland proteins of Hyalomma anatolicum and Boophilus microplus ticks. Vet Immunol Immunop. 1996; 51(3–4): 345–352.
Musatov VA. Changes in physiology and size of ixodid ticks when feeding repeatedly on the same animal. Parazitologiya 1967; 1(4): 288–292.
Allen JR. Tick resistance: basophils in skin reactions of resistant guinea pigs. Int J Parasitol. 1973; 3(2): 195–200.
Rahman MH. Effects of host-immunity on the life cycle of Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Folia Parasitol (Praha) 1974; 31(1): 63–67.
Brossard M, Girardin P. Passive transfer of resistance in rabbits infested with adult Ixodes ricinus L.: humoral factor influence feeding and egg laying. Experientia 1979; 35(10): 1395–1397.
Wikel SK. Host immunity to ticks. Ann Rev Entomol. 1996; 41: 1–22.
Latif AA, Newson RM, Dhadialla TS. Feeding performance of Amblyomma variegatum (Acarina: Ixodidae) fed repeatedly on rabbits. Exp Appl Acarol. 1988; 5(1–2): 83–92.
Linthicum KJ, Dickson DL, Logan TM. Feeding efficiency of larval Hyalomma truncatum (Acari) on hosts previously exposed to ticks. J Med Entomol. 1992; 29(2): 310–313.
Bagnall BG, Rothwell TLW. Responses in guinea pigs to larvae of tick, Ixodes holocyclus. In: Proceedings 3 rd Inter Congr Parasitol Facta Publ: 1974; 2: 1082–1083.
Schorderet S, Brossard M. Changes in immunity to Ixodes ricinus by rabbits infested at different levels. Med Vet Entomol. 1993; 7(2): 186–192.
Gebbia JA, Bosler EM, Evans RD, Schneider EM. Acquired resistance in dogs to repeated infestation with Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) reduces tick viability and reproductive success. Exp Appl Acarol. 1995; 19(10): 593–605.