RESEARCH PAPER
Retrospective assessment of specific effects of exposure of workers to PCBs in Slovakia
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Košice, Slovakia
2
St. Elizabeth University of Health and Social Science, Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry and LABMED, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Košice, Slovakia
4
1st Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
 
Ann Agric Environ Med 2018;25(3):421–427
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction and objective:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used commercially since 1929 as dielectric and insulating non-flammable substances, additives for paints, etc. In Slovakia, 60 chemical production workers highly exposed to PCBs (mainly to Delor 103) were studied with duration of exposure ranging from 3 months to 19 years.

Material and methods:
Clinical examinations of skin, skin histology and laboratory tests concerning lipid metabolism, iron metabolism and levels of copper provided comparisons with a control group of healthy individuals and/or the upper limits of normal values.

Results:
Skin changes were found in 47 % of individuals. In most cases, milia-like efflorescences (57.14 %) occurred, as well as comedones (55.35 %); other symptoms occurred in a smaller number of workers. Hyperkeratosis, acanthosis of the epidermis (particularly in hair follicles), and a cellular infiltration of the corium were all found through histology. The intensity of cutaneous affections was associated with the changes in laboratory tests. Elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids were found in exposed workers. After a further two years, a significant increase in triglycerides was found in exposed individuals when compared with the control group. In addition, a significant increase in serum levels of copper, and total and unsaturated iron-binding capacity was detected.

Conclusions:
Anamnesis showed that some people directly exposed to PCBs may develop skin changes after three months of occupational exposure. The results represent a unique snapshot of worker exposure at a given location, representing the basis for comparison with the population who grew up in the area and still live there today.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Tatiana Kimáková   
Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Šrobárova 2, 04180 Košice, Slovak Republic
 
REFERENCES (60):
1. Johnson GW, Quensen JF, Chiarenzelli, JR, Coreen Hamilton M. Polychlorinated Biphenyls 414. In: Morrison RD, Murphy BL, editors. Environmental Forensics 416 Contaminant Specific Guide, Academic Press; 1996. p. 187–214.
2. Bencko V, Černá M, Jech L, et al. Exposure of breast-fed children in the Czech Republic to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004; 18: 83–90.
3. Pessah I, Cherednichenko G, Lein P. Minding the calcium store: Ryanodine receptor activation as a convergent mechanism of PCB toxicity. Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 125: 260–285.
4. Mesnier A, Champion S, Louis L, et al. The Transcriptional effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the liver, Adipose tissue, muscle and colon of mice: Highlighting of glut4 and Lipin1 as main target genes for PCB induced metabolic disorders. PloS One 2015; 10, e0128847.
5. Palkovičová Murínová Ľ, Moleti A, Trnovec T, et al. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years. Environ Res. 2016; 151: 428–435.
6. ATSDR Case studies in environmental medicine. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) toxicity http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/... (access: 2018.02.01).
7. EPA. Public health implications of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) https://www.epa.gov/sites/prod... (access: 2018.02.01).
8. Taniyasu S, Kannan K, Holoubek I, et al. Isomer-specific analysis of chlorinated biphenyls, naphthalenes and dibenzofurans in Delor: Polychlorinated biphenyl preparations from the former Czechoslovakia. Environ Pollution 2003; 126: 169–178.
9. Jursa S, Chovancová J, Petrík J, et al. Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs in human serum of Slovak population. Chemosphere 2005; 64: 686–691.
10. Petrik J, Drobna B, Pavuk M, et al. Serum PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Slovakia: Age, gender, and residence as determinants of organochlorine concentrations. Chemosphere 2006; 65(3): 410–418.
11. Lindell B. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals 146. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Gothenburg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg, 2012.
12. Černá M, Bencko V. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbons: body burden of the Czech and Slovak populations. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls. Cent Eur J Publ Health 1999; 7: 67–71.
13. Bencko V, Skulová Z, Krečmerová M, et al. Selected polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in breast milk. Toxicol Lett. 1998; 96(97): 341–345.
14. Černá M, Bencko V, Brabec M, et al. Exposure assessment of breast-fed infants in the Czech Republic to indicator PCBs and selected chlorinated pesticides: Area-related differences. Chemosphere 2010; 78(2): 160–168.
15. Trnovec T, Šovčíková E, Husťák M, et al. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and hearing impairment in children. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008; 25: 183–187.
16. Trnovec T, Šovčíková E, Pavlovcinová G, et al. Serum PCB concentrations and cochlear function in 12-year-old children. Environ Sci Technol. 2010; 44: 2884–2889.
17. Eggstein M, Kreutz F. A new determination of the neutral fats in blood serum and tissue. I. Principles, procedure, and discussion of the method. Klin Wochenschr. 1966; 14: 262–267.
18. Zlatkis A, Zak B, Boyle A. A new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterol. J Lab Clin Med. 1953; 41: 486–492.
19. Bartlett G. Phosphorus assay in column chromatography. J Biol Chem. 1959; 234: 466–468.
20. Luna, LG. Manual of Histologic staining methods: of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill, 1968.
21. Maroni M, Colombi A, Arbosti G, et al. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. II. Health effects. Br J Ind Med. 1981; 38: 55–60.
22. Ahlborg UG, Hanberg A, Kenne K. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers https://kiedit.ki.se/sites/def... (access: 2018.02.01).
23. Emmett E, Maroni M, Schmith J, Levin B, Jefferys J, et al. Studies of transformer repair workers exposed to PCBs: I. Study design, PCB concentrations, questionnaire, and clinical examination results. Am J Ind Med. 1988; 13: 415–427.
24. James R, Busch H, Tamburro C, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and human disease. Occup Med. 1993; 35: 136–148.
25. Kimbrough R, Krouskas C. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and health effects: A critical synopsis. Toxicol Rev. 2004; 22: 217–233.
26. Ju Q, Fimmel S, Hinz N., et al. 2, 3,7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters sebaceous gland cell differentiation in vitro. Exp Dermatol. 2011; 20: 320–325.
27. Ikuta T, Ohba M, Zouboulis C, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Kawajiri K, et al. B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 is a novel target gene of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J Dermatol Sci. 2010; 58: 211–216.
28. Beischlag T, Morales L, Hollingshead B, Perdew G, et al. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex and the control of gene expression. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2008; 18: 207–250.
29. Vorrink S, Hudachek DR, Domann FE. Epigenetic determinants of CYP1A1 induction by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 3, 3“,4, 4”,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15: 13916–13931.
30. Tsai P, Huang W, Lee Y, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and GSTM1 predispose humans to PCBs/PCDFs-induced skin lesions. Chemosphere 2006; 63: 1410–1418.
31. Rocha de Oliveira C, Ceolin J, Rocha de Oliveira R, et al. Effects of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced liver injury in rats. Nutr Hosp. 2017; 29: 1141–1148.
32. Aminov Z, Haase R, Pavuk M, Carpenter DO, et al. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama. Environ Health 2013; 12: 108.
33. Goncharov A, Haase R, Santiago-Rivera A, et al. High serum PCBs are associated with elevation of serum lipids and cardiovascular disease in a native American population. Environ Res. 2007; 106: 226–239.
34. Inui H, Itoh T, Yamamoto K, et al. Mammalian cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls. Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15: 14044–14057.
35. Aly H, Domènech O. Aroclor 1254 induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology 2009; 262: 175–183.
36. Pathak S, Kundu R. Low doses of a PCB (Aroclor 1254) affect the body weight by decreasing the activity of glucose-6-Phosphatase in the liver and kidney cells of mice. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2013; 3: 16–21.
37. Zhang W, Sargis R, Volden P, et al. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. PloS One 2012; 7: e37103.
38. Nye CK, Hanson RW, Kalhan SC. Glyceroneogenesis in the dominant pathway for triglyceride glycerol synthesis in vivo in the rat. J Biol Chem. 2008; 283: 27565–27574.
39. Drakesmith H, Prentice A. Hepcidin and the Iron-Infection Axis. Science 2012; 338: 768–772.
40. Ludewig G, Robertson L. Prostate Cancer Risk Through Exposure to Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Modulation by Dietary Supplementation. Oaidticmil http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?ve... (access: 2018.02.01).
41. Rolfs A, Kvietikova I, Gassmann M, et al. Oxygen-regulated transferrin expression is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 20055–20062.
42. Wenger R, Gassmann M. Oxygen(es) and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Biol Chem. 1997; 378: 609–616.
43. Wang L, Zhang S, Lin R, et al. PCB-77 disturbs iron homeostasis through regulating hepcidin gene expression. Gene 2013; 532: 146–151.
44. Qian Y, Zhang S, Guo W, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) inhibit hepcidin expression through an estrogen-like effect associated with disordered systemic iron homeostasis. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015; 28: 629–640.
45. Lai I, Klaren W, Li M, et al. Does dietary copper supplementation enhance or diminish PCB126 toxicity in the rodent liver? Chem Res Toxicol. 2013; 26: 634–644.
46. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, et al. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci. 2006; 93(2): 223–241.
47. Pelclová D, Urban P, Navrátil T, et al. Adverse health effects in humans exposed to 2,3,7,8-etrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Rev Environ Health 2006; 21: 119–138.
48. Bencko V, Foong, FYL. The history, toxicity and adverse human health and environmental effects related to the use of agent orange. In: Simeonov LI, Macaev FZ, Simeonova BG, editors. Environmental security assessment and management of obsolete pesticides in southeast Europe. Springer, Varna; 2013. p. 119–130.
49. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-dioxins. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans. Lyon, France: IARC Monographs 1997; 69: 33–343.
50. Dai LC. Agent Orange in the Viet Nam war: History and Consequences. Hanoi, Vietnam: Vietnam Red Cross Society 2000; 1–202.
51. Smith AH, et al. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels of New Zealand pesticide applicators and their implication for cancer hypotheses. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991; 84: 104–108.
52. Landi MT, Consonni D. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin plasma levels in Seveso 20 years after the accident. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106: 273–277.
53. Flesch-Janys D, Becher H, et al. Elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in occupationally exposed persons. J Toxicol Environ Health 1996; 47: 363–78.
54. Fingerhut MA, Halperin WE, et al. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 212–218.
55. Neuberger M, et al. Blood levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in chemical workers after chloracne and in comparison groups. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1991; 63: 325–327.
56. Zemek A, Kočan A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil samples from a trichlorophenol-producing plant. Chemosphere 1991; 23: 1769–1776.
57. Pazderová-Vejlupková J, Lukáš E, et al. Chronic poisoning by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Pracov Lék 1980; 32: 204–209. (In Czech, English abstract).
58. Pazderová-Vejlupková J, et al. The development and prognosis of chronic intoxication by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in men. Arch Environ Health 1981; 36: 5–11.
59. Pelclová D, Fenclová Z, et al. Biochemical, neuropsychological, and neurological abnormalities following 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Arch Environ Health. 2001; 56: 493–500.
60. Aylward LL, Hays SM. Temporal trends in human TCDD body burden: decreases over three decades and implications for exposure levels. JEAEE 2002; 12: 319–328.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966