RESEARCH PAPER
Regional importance of Alnus pollen as an aeroallergen: A comparative study of Alnus pollen counts from Worcester (UK) and Poznań (Poland)
 
More details
Hide details
1
National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, UK
2
Laboratory of Aeropalynology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
3
Department of Dermatology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Matt Smith   

National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Henwick Road, Worcester, WR2 6AJ, United Kingdom.
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(1):123–128
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Daily average Alnus pollen counts (1996-2005) from Worcester (UK) and Poznań (Poland) were examined with the aim of assessing the regional importance of Alnus pollen as an aeroallergen. The average number of Alnus pollen grains recorded annuallyat Poznań was more than 2.5 times that of Worcester. Furthermore, daily average Alnus pollen counts exceeded the thresholds of 100, 500 and 1,000 grains/m3 more times at Poznań than Worcester. Skin prick test results (1996-2005) and allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) measurements using the CAP (Pharmacia) system (2002-2005), were supplied by the Allergic Diseases Diagnostic Centre in Poznań. The annual number of positive skin prick tests to Alnus pollen allergens was significantly related (p<0.05) to seasonal variations in the magnitude of the Alnus pollen catch recorded at Poznań (r=0.70). The symptoms of patients with positive skin prick tests to Alnus pollen allergens were: 51% pollinosis, 43% atopic dermatitis, 4% asthma, 1% chronic urticaria and 1% eczema. On a scale of 0-6, 20.5% of patients examined for serum asIgE in relation to Alnus pollen allergens had asIgE measurements in classes 5 and 6. Alnus pollen is generally considered to be mildly allergenic. However, the amount of Alnus pollen released into the atmosphere in places such as Poznań may increase its impact on the population and make it one of the more important aeroallergens present.
 
REFERENCES (42)
1.
Adams-Groom B, Emberlin J, Corden JM, Millington W, Mullins J: Predicting the start of the Betula pollen season at London, Derby and Cardiff, United Kingdom, using a multiple regression model, based on data from 1987 to 1997. Aerobiologia 2002, 18, 117-123.
 
2.
Ahas R, Aasa A, Menzel A, Fedotova VG, Scheifi nger H: Changes in European spring phenology. Int J Climatol 2002, 22, 1727-1738.
 
3.
APGII: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classifi cation for the orders and families of fl owering plants: APG II. Bot J Linn Soc 2003, 141(4), 399-436.
 
4.
BAF: Airborne Pollens and Spores: A Guide to Trapping and Counting. ISBN 0-9525617-0-0. The British Aerobiology Federation, Aylesford 1995.
 
5.
Blaiss MS: Important aspects in management of allergic rhinitis; compliance, cost, and quality of life. Allergy Asthma Proc 2003, 24(4), 231-238.
 
6.
Cariñanos P, Emberlin J, Galán C, Dominguez Vilches E: Comparison of two pollen counting methods of slides from a Hirst type volumetric trap. Aerobiologia 2000, 16(3/4), 339-346.
 
7.
Corden J, Stach A, Millington W: A comparison of Betula pollen seasons at two European sites; Derby, United Kingdom and Poznan, Poland (1995-1999). Aerobiologia 2002, 18, 45-53.
 
8.
Czarnecka-Operacz M, Silny W: Diagnostic skin tests in allergic diseases. Post Derm Alerg 2001, 18(2), 80-84.
 
9.
D’Amato G, Spieksma FTM: European allergenic pollen types. Aerobiologia 1992, 8, 447-450.
 
10.
Dreissen MNBM, Van Herpen RMA, Moelands RPM, Spieksma FTM: Prediction of the start of the grass pollen season for the western part of the Netherlands. Grana 1989, 28, 37-44.
 
11.
Dreissen MNBM, Van Herpen RMA, Smithuis LOMJ: Prediction of the start of the grass pollen season for the southern part of the Netherlands. Grana 1990, 29, 79-86.
 
12.
Emberlin J: The problem of pollen. Current Medical Literature: Allergy 2000, 8(2), 25-28.
 
13.
Emberlin J, Mullins J, Cordon J, Millington W, Brooke M, Savage M, Jones S: The trend to earlier birch pollen seasons in the UK: a biotic response to changes in weather conditions? Grana 1997, 36, 29-33.
 
14.
Emberlin J, Savage M, Woodman R: Annual variations in Betula pollen seasons in London 1961-1990. Grana 1993, 32, 359-363.
 
15.
Ferguson BJ: Infl uences of allergic rhinitis on sleep. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery 2004, 130(5), 617-629.
 
16.
Galán C, Cuevas J, Infante F, Dominguez E: Seasonal and diurnalvariation of pollen from Gramineae in the atmosphere of Cordoba (Spain). Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1989, 17(5), 245-249.
 
17.
Goldberg C, Buch H, Moseholm L, Weeke EV: Airborne pollen records in Denmark, 1977-1986. Grana 1988, 27, 209-217.
 
18.
Goudie A: The Nature of the Environment. 3rd ed. Blackwell, London 1996.
 
19.
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R: Comparative Plant Ecology. Chapman and Hall, London 1996.
 
20.
Główny Urzad Statystyczny. Rocznik Statystyczny Poznania. 2001. http://www.stat.gov.pl/urzedy/... woj/ludnosc/03m05_01.pdf.
 
21.
Hirst JM: An automatic volumetric spore trap. Ann Appl Biol 1952, 39(2), 257-265.
 
22.
IPCC: Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaption and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
 
23.
Jäger S, Nilsson S, Berggren B, Pessi A-M, Helander M, Ramford H: Trends in some airborne tree pollen in the Nordic countries and Austria, 1980-1993: A comparison between Stockholm, Trondheim, Turku and Vienna. Grana 1996, 35, 171-178.
 
24.
Jato V, Frenguelli G, Aira MJ: Temperature requirements of Alnus pollen in Spain and Italy (1994-1998). Grana 2000, 39, 240 245.
 
25.
Kasprzyk I: Flowering phenology and airborne pollen grains of chosen tree taxa in Rzeszów (SE Poland). Aerobiologia 2003, 19, 113- 120.
 
26.
Kasprzyk I, Harmata K, Myszkowska D, Stach A, Stepalska D: Diurnal variation of chosen airborne pollen at fi ve sites in Poland. Aerobiologia 2001, 17, 327-345.
 
27.
Kasprzyk I, Uruska A, Szczepanek K, Latalowa M, Gawel J, Harmata K, Myszkowska D, Stach A, Stepalska D: Regional differentiation in the dynamics of the pollen seasons of Alnus, Corylus and Fraxinus in Poland (preliminary results). Aerobiologia 2004, 20, 141-151.
 
28.
Larsson KA: Prediction of the pollen season with a cumulated activity method. Grana 1993, 32, 111-114.
 
29.
Latalowa M, Mietus M, Uruska A: Seasonal variations in the atmospheric Betula pollen count in Gdańsk (southern Baltic coast) in relation to meteorological parameters. Aerobiologia 2002, 18, 33-43.
 
30.
Matthiesen F, Ipsen H, Løwenstein H: Pollen Allergies. In: D‘Amato G, Spieksma FTM, Bonini S (Eds.): Allergenic Pollen and Pollinosis in Europe, 36-44. Blackwell Scientifi c Publications, Oxford 1991.
 
31.
Menzel A, Fabian P: Growing season extended in Europe. Nature 1999, 397, 659.
 
32.
METO, Met Offi ce. 1971-2000 Averages. 2004. http://www.meto. gov.uk/climate/uk/averages/ind....
 
33.
Nilsson S, Persson S: Tree pollen spectra in the Stockholm region (Sweden), 1973-1980. Grana 1981, 20, 179-182.
 
34.
ONS, Offi ce for National Statistics. Census 2001: First Results on Population. 2002. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/c....
 
35.
Portnoy JM: What do pollen counts mean. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004, 93, 109-110.
 
36.
Preston CD, Pearman DA, Dines TD: New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. University Press, Oxford 2002.
 
37.
Rodríguez-Rajo FJ, Dopazo A, Jato V: Environmental factors affectingthe start of the pollen season and concentrations of airborne Alnus pollen in two localities of Galicia (NW Spain). Ann Agric Environ Med 2004, 11(1), 35-44.
 
38.
Smith M, Emberlin J, Kress A: Examining high magnitude grass pollen episodes at Worcester, United Kingdom, using back-trajectory analysis. Aerobiologia 2005, 21(2), 85-94.
 
39.
Spieksma FTM, Emberlin JC, Hjelmroos M, Jäger S, Leuschner RM: Atmospheric birch (Betula) pollen in Europe: Trends and fl uctuations in annual quantities and the starting dates of the seasons. Grana 1995, 34, 51-57.
 
40.
Stach A: Variation in pollen concentration of the most allergenic taxa in Poznan (Poland), 1995-1996. Aerobiologia 2000, 16, 63-68.
 
41.
Weryszko-Chmielewska E, Puc M, Rapiejko P: Comparative analysis of pollen counts of Corylus, Alnus and Betula in Szczecin, Warsaw and Lublin (2000-2001). Ann Agric Environ Med 2001, 8(2), 235-240.
 
42.
Wiltshire S, O’Malley S, Lambert J, Kukanskis K, Edgar D, Kingsmore SF, Schweitzer B: Detection of multiple allergen-specifi c IgEs on microarrays by immunoassay with rolling circle amplifi cation. Clin Chem 2000, 46(12), 1990-1993.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966