Reducing environmental pollution by chemical herbicides using natural plant derivatives – allelopathy effect
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Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Samarra, Samarra, Iraq
Weeds are an important factor in determining production in the agricultural sector. Currently, weeds have been managed by employing synthetic weedicides chemicals. These chemicals have a negative impact on the environment through accumulation in soil and water, in addition to their effect on biological diversity.

Material and methods:
A study was undertaken to evaluate the activity of the aqueous extract of leaves from; Nerium (Nerium oleander L), olives (Olea europaea L) and castor (Ricinus communis L) on the control of Cyperus rotundus L. The study comprised of two components: three plant species, and the uses of three planta extracts concentration (5%, 7.5% and 10%) and their impact on germination and inhibition of seedling growth.

The results from using Nerium extract in comparison with Tibenuron and the two other plants extracts gave 90% inhibition at concentrations of 5% and 10%, while the concentration of 2.5% gave the lowest inhibition rates for germination of all plant extracts under study. The second experiment carried out using 10% concentration of the Nerium extract gave complete inhibition (100%), compared with the same concentrations of other plants extract and weedicides.

The current study indicates the possibility of using natural products of plant origin as alternatives to chemical herbicides as one of the means of biological control to reducing environment pollution.

Ghassan Faris Al-Samarai   
University of Samarra, Iraq, 34010 Samarra, Iraq
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