RESEARCH PAPER
Parasitisation and localisation of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on exotic reptiles imported into Poland.
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology, Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010;17(2):237–242
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
As a result of examinations, the following species of ticks have been found parasitising on Python regius brought from Africa to Poland: Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma spp., on Varanus exanthematicus: Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma spp., on Varanus salvator brought from Indonesia to Poland: Amblyomma varanensis. There were 58 specimens of monitor lizard (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens of python (P. regius) examined, with the selected locations of parasitisation by the ticks on the host`s body described in detail. Among the 434 specimens of tick collected from the monitor lizards, the majority parasitised the host`s limbs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), the head (20.3%), and least on the tail (9.9%). There were 430 tick specimens collected from the bodies of the pythons. They chiefly parasitised the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the abdominal side of the trunk (29.8%), less numerously in the neighbourhood of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nasal openings (0.9%) and the remaining parts of the head (5.6%). Examination of the ticks` location on the reptiles` bodies enabled us to discover the specific parasitisation locations of ticks along the entire length of the host`s body. Knowledge of the ticks` location on the bodies of specific reptile species, particularly at a time when the import of exotic animals is growing all over the world, will help in drawing up methods of fighting the parasites, and may give valuable clues to veterinary services and private breeders.
 
REFERENCES (37)
1.
Balashov YuS: Ixodid ticks – parasites and vectors of diseases. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg 1998 (in Russian).
 
2.
Burridge MJ: Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) spread by the international trade in reptiles and their potential roles in dissemination of diseases. Bull Entomol Res 2001, 91, 3–23.
 
3.
Burridge MJ, Simmons LA: Exotic ticks introduced into the United States on imported reptiles from 1962 to 2001 and their potential roles in international dissemination of diseases. Vet Parasitol 2003, 113, 289–320.
 
4.
Burridge MJ, Simmons LA, Allan SA: Introduction of potential heartwater vectors and other exotic ticks into Florida on imported reptiles. J Parasitol 2000, 86, 700–704.
 
5.
Burridge MJ, Simmons LA, Simbi BH, Peter TF, Mahan SM: Evidence of Cowdria ruminantium infection (heartwater) in Amblyomma sparsum ticks found on tortoises imported into Florida. J Parasitol 2000, 86, 1135–1136.
 
6.
Centurier C, Gothe R, Hoffmann G, Liebisch A, Schein E: The brown dog tick R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) in Germany – a problem for small veterinary clinics. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 1979, 92, 472–477 (in German).
 
7.
Elbl A, Anastos G: Ixodid ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of Central Africa. Volume IV. Genera Aponomma Neumann, 1899, Boophilus Curtice, 1891, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844, Hyalomma Koch, 1844 and Rhipicentor Nuttal and Warburton, 1908. Lists and bibliography. Ann Mus R Afr Cent, Sér. 8vo, Sci Zool 1966, 4, 412.
 
8.
FAO: Ticks and tick-borne disease control. A practical field manual. Vol. I. Tick control. Vol. II. Tick-borne disease control. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 1984.
 
9.
Ghosh S, Bansal GC, Gupta SC, Ray D, Khan MQ, Irshad H, Shahiduzzaman Md, Seitzer U, Ahmed JS: Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Parasitol Res 2007, 101 (suppl. 2), 207–216.
 
10.
Gonzalez-Acuna D, Beldomenico PM, Venzal JM, Fabry M, Keirans JE, Guglielmone AA: Reptile trade and the risk of exotic tick introductions into southern South American countries. Exp Appl Acarol 2005, 35, 335–339.
 
11.
Haarlov N: Another case of introduction into Denmark from Africa of the kennel tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latr. 1806)). Nord Vet-Med 1969, 21, 445–448.
 
12.
Haitlinger R: Roztocze (Acari) występujące w Polsce na Lacertidae Bonaparte, 1838 (Reptilia). Wiad Parazytol 1987, 33, 229–231.
 
13.
Hanson BA, Frank PA, Mertins JW, Corn JL: Tick paralysis of a snake caused by Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 2007, 44, 155–157.
 
14.
Hoogstraal H: African Ixodoidea. I Ticks of the Sudan (with special reference to Equatoria Province and with preliminary reviews of the genera Boophilus, Margaropus and Hyalomma). Dep Navy Bur Med Surg, Washington, DC 1956.
 
15.
Hoogstraal H: Birds as tick hosts and as reservoirs and disseminators of tickborne infectious agents. Wiad Parazytol 1972, 18, 703–706.
 
16.
Hoogstraal H: Ticks. In: Gaafar SM, Howard WE, Marsh RE (Eds): Parasites, Pests and Predators, 347–370. Elsevier Science Publishers BV, The Netherlands, Amsterdam 1985.
 
17.
Hoogstraal H: Argasid and Nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors. Adv Parasitol 1985, 24, 135–238.
 
18.
Kauffman TS: A revision of the genus Aponomma Neuman, 1899 (Acarina: Ixodidae). Dissertation, University of Maryland 1972.
 
19.
Keirans JM, Durden LA: Invasion: exotic ticks (Acari: Argasidae: Ixodidae) imported into the United States. A review and new records. J Med Entomol 2001, 38, 850–861.
 
20.
Kiel JL, Alarcon RM, Parker JE, Vivekananda J, Gonzalez YB, Stribling LJ, Andrews CJ: Emerging tick-borne disease in African vipers caused by a Cowdria-like organism. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006, 1081, 434–442.
 
21.
King DR, Keirans JE: Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) from varanid lizards in eastern Indonesia. Rec West Aust Mus 1997, 18, 329–330.
 
22.
Kurczewski R: Jaszczurka zwinka (Lacerta agilis) jako żywiciel kleszcza psiego (Ixodes ricinus). In: Zamachowski W (Ed): Biologia płazów i gadów. Materiały V Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Herpetologicznej, Kraków, 26–28 Czerwiec 2000, 67–69. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków 2000.
 
23.
Kurczewski R: Kleszcze (Ixodidae) atakujące jaszczurkę zwinkę (Lacerta agilis) na terenie Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego. In: Zamachowski W (Ed): Biologia płazów i gadów – ochrona herpetofauny. Materiały VI Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Herpetologicznej, Kraków, 24–26 wrzesień 2002, 60–65. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków 2002.
 
24.
Lehmann HD, Roth B, Schneider CC: Amblyomma testudinis (Conil, 1877) ticks – its evolution and influence on host. Z Tropenmed Parasitol 1969, 20, 247–259 (in German).
 
25.
Matthysse JG, Colbo MH: The Ixodid Ticks of Uganda, Together with Species Pertinent to Uganda Because of Their Present Known Distribution. Entomological Society of America, College Park, MD 1987.
 
26.
McAllister CT, Keirans JE: Additional records of tick (Acari: Ixodidae, Argasidae) ingestion by whiptail lizards, genus Cnemidophorus. Tex J Sci 1987, 39, 287–288.
 
27.
Nowak M: The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia) – The cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland. Vet Parasitol 2010, 169, 373–381.
 
28.
Nowak M, Siuda K: Tick (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) transferred on reptiles Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius from AfrotropicalRegion to Central Europe. In: Mas-Coma S (Ed): Multidisciplinarity for Parasites, Vectors and Parasitic Diseases. Medimond International Proceedings, IX European Multicolloquium of Parasitology, Valencia (Spain), 18–23 July 2004, 335–338. Medimond International Proceedings, Valencia 2004.
 
29.
Petney TN, Kolonin GV: Southeast Asian ticks (Acari: Ixodida) a historical perspective. Parasitol Res 2007, 101 (suppl. 2), 201–205.
 
30.
Pietzsch M, Quest R, Hillyard PD, Medlock JM, Leach S: Importation of exotic ticks into the United Kingdom via the international trade in reptiles. Exp Appl Acarol 2006, 38, 59–65.
 
31.
Reeves WK, Durden LA, Dasch GA: A spotted fever group Rickettsia from exotic tick species Amblyomma exornatum (Acari: Ixodidae), in a reptile breeding facility in the United States. J Med Entomol 2006, 43, 1099–1101.
 
32.
Santos Dias JAT: Another Ixodid of the genus Aponomma Neumann, 1899, for the Mozambique fauna. Key, hosts and geographical distribution of the African species of that genus. Universidade de Lourenço Marques, Mozambique 1974.
 
33.
Santos Dias JAT: Previous note concerning the organization of a catalogue for the genus Aponomma Neumann, 1899 (Acarina – Ixodoidea). Garcia de Orta Sér Zoologia Lisboa 1985, 12 (1–2), 31–42.
 
34.
Siuda K: Aponomma ludovici Siuda, 1972 as a junior synonym of Aponomma sphenodonti Dumbléton, 1943 (Acarina: Ixodides: Ixodidae). Wiad Parazytol 1982, 28, 423-425.
 
35.
Siuda K: Kleszcze (Acari: Ixodida) Polski. Część I Zagadnienia ogólne. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw, Wrocław 1991.
 
36.
Stenos J, Graves S, Popov VL, Walker DH: Aponomma hydrosauri, the reptile – associated tick reservoir of Rickettsia honei on Flinders Island, Australia. Am J Med Hyg 2003, 69, 314–317.
 
37.
Szymański S: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) – a new member of the Polish fauna of ticks (Parasitiformes, Ixodidae). Bull Acad Pol Sci Cl Biol 1980, 27, 555–556.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966