BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in Central Italy – A preliminary study
 
More details
Hide details
1
Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Simona Nardoni   

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(1):103–105
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from April – September 2015 in 40 apiaries from Tuscany (Central Italy). Cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Humicola sp. Mucoraceae and Acremonium sp. Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were also identified. Yeasts and Fusarium spp. were not isolated. All pollen specimens were positive for at least one fungal isolate. Total CFU per gram ranged from 4–568. Aspergillus and Penicillium were obtained from 8 (20%) and from 22 (55%) pollen samples, respectively, associated in 4 cases (10%). The recovery of storage fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium in trapped pollen presents a potential risk for human health and attention should be paid to all stages of the post-harvest process.
 
REFERENCES (22)
1.
Formato G, Smulders FJ. Risk management in primary apicultural production. Part 1: bee health and disease prevention and associated best practices. Vet Q. 2011; 31(1): 29–47.
 
2.
Campos MGR, Stefan Bogdanov S, Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian L, Szczesna T, Mancebo Y, Frigerio C, Ferreira F. Pollen composition and standardization of analytical methods. J Apic Res. 2008; 47(2): 156–163.
 
3.
Fatrcová-Šramková K, Nôžková J, Kačániová M, Máriássyová M, Rovná K, Stričík M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of monofloral bee pollen. J Environ Sci Health. 2013; 48(2): 133–138.
 
4.
Pascoal A, Rodrigues S, Teixeira A, Feás X, Estevinho LM. Biological activities of commercial bee pollens: antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014; 63: 233–239.
 
5.
Komosinska-Vassev K, Olczyk P, Kaźmierczak J, Mencner L, Olczyk K. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application. 2015; doi: 10.1155/2015/297425.
 
6.
De-Melo AA, Estevinho ML, de Almeida-Muradian LB. A diagnosis of the microbiological quality of dehydrated bee-pollen produced in Brazil. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2015; doi: 10.1111/lam.12480. [Epub ahead of print].
 
7.
Gilliam M, Prest DB, Prest DB, Lorenz BJ, Lorenz BJ. Microbiology of pollen and bee bread: taxonomy and enzymology of molds. Apidol. 1989; 20: 53–68.
 
8.
González G, Hinojo MJ, Mateo R, Medina A, M. Jiménez AM. Occurrence of mycotoxin producing fungi in bee pollen. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005; 105: 1–9.
 
9.
Kacániová M, Pavlicová S, Hascík P, Kociubinski G, Kńazovická V, Sudzina M, Sudzinová J, Fikselová M. Microbial communities in bees, pollen and honey from Slovakia. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2009; 56(3): 285–295.
 
10.
Kačániová M, Juráček M, Chlebo R, Kňazovická V, Kadasi-Horáková M, Kunová S, Lejková J, Haščík P, Mareček J, Simko M. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in bee pollen collected from different areas of Slovakia. J Environ Sci Health B. 2011; 46(7): 623–629.
 
11.
Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Font G, Mañes J, Berrada H. Determination of mycotoxins in bee pollen by gas chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2013; 61: 1999−2005.
 
12.
Raper KB, Fennell DI. The genus Aspergillus. 1st ed. Baltimore (MD) Publisher Williams & Wilkins, 1965.
 
13.
Pitt JI. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. 1st ed. London Academic Press Inc, 1979.
 
14.
De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Figueras MJ, Gené, J. Atlas of Clinical Fungi. 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands and Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain, 2000.
 
15.
Samson RA, Hoekstra ES, Frisvad JC. Introduction to food-borne fungi. 7th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Baarn Delft, 2004.
 
16.
Brindza J, Gróf J, Bacigálová K, Ferianc P, Tóth D. Pollen microbial colonization and food safety. Acta Chim Slov. 2013; 3: 95–102.
 
17.
Estevinho LM, Rodrigues S, Pereira AP, Feás X. Portuguese bee pollen: palynological study, nutritional and microbiological evaluation. Int J Food Sci Tech. 2012; 47: 429–435.
 
18.
Medina A, González G, Sáez JM, Mateo R, Jiménez M. Bee pollen, a substrate that stimulates ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004; 27: 261–267.
 
19.
Garcia-Villanova RJ, Cordón C, González Paramás AM, Aparicio P, Garcia Rosales ME. Simultaneous immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC analysis of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Spanish bee pollen. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52: 7235–7239.
 
20.
Collin S, Vanhavre T, Bodart E, Bouseta A. Heat treatment of pollens: impact on their volatile flavor constituents. J Agric Food Chem. 1995; 43: 444–448.
 
21.
Bhat R, Rai RV, Karim AA. Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and future concerns. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety. 2010; 9: 57–81.
 
22.
Logrieco A. and Visconti A. An overview on toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in Europe. 1st ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966