Between 2015–2020, the concentrations and diversity of filamentous fungi as well as the levels of mycotoxins in 4 classes of vegetables and fruits were studied in samples from farms located in eastern Poland. The short communication summarizes the results with the use of statistical analysis and indicates the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of the produce contaminated with fungi and/or mycotoxins. The concentrations of filamentous fungi in all examined samples were moderate (2.813 – 4.146 log10 CFU g -1). The highest values were noted in root vegetables, whereas the lowest values in fruit vegetables. The mycobiota revealed a marked biodiversity (67 species and 33 genera). Penicillium and Fusarium prevailed in the mycobiota of root vegetables, whereas Cladosporium and Alternaria in the remaining classes. Most of identified species (88.1%) were described as potentially pathogenic. The importance of mycotoxins as a potential health risk factor for vegetable consumers, was confirmed by the detection of a high prevalence (>55%) of total aflatoxin (AFT). The level of AFT in berry fruits was significantly higher than in other classes. The high prevalence (58.5%) of deoxynivalenol was noted in raspberries.

Filamentous fungi present in the examined vegetables and fruits may pose a potential health risk for consumers due to a high prevalence of potentially pathogenic species, mostly those producing mycotoxins.

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