Kynurenic acid content in anti-rheumatic herbs
More details
Hide details
Department of Toxicology, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(4):800–802
Introduction: The use of herbal medicines is common among people living in rural areas and increasingly popular in urbanized countries. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a metabolite of kynurenine possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pain reliving properties. Previous data indicated that the content of KYNA in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is lower than in patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting about 1% of the world’s population. Aim: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the content of KYNA in 11 herbal preparations used in rheumatic diseases. Materials and methods: The following herbs were studied: bean pericarp, birch leaf, dandelion root, elder flower, horsetail herb, nettle leaf, peppermint leaf and willow bark. An anti-rheumatic mixture of the herbs Reumatefix and Reumaflos tea were also investigated. The herbs were prepared according to producers’ directions. In addition, the herbal supplement Devil’s Claw containing root of Harpagophytum was used. KYNA content was measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and KYNA was detected fluorometrically. Results: KYNA was found in all studied herbal preparations. The highest content of KYNA was found in peppermint, nettle, birch leaf and the horsetail herb. The lowest content of KYNA was found in willow bark, dandelion root and in the extract from the root of Harpagophytum. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the use of herbal preparations containing a high level of KYNA can be considered as a supplementary measure in rheumatoid arthritis therapy, as well as in rheumatic diseases prevention.
Hilmas C, Pereira EF, Alkondon M, Rassoulpour A, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX. The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications. J Neurosci. 2001; 21: 7463–7473.
Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic acid as an Antagonist of alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain: Facts and Challenges. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012; 85: 1027–32.
Wang J, Simonavicius N, Wu X, Swaminath G, Reagan J, Tian H, et al. Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 22021–22028.
Kaszaki J, Palasthy Z, Erczes D, Racz A, Torday C, Varga G, et al. Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008; 21: 53–62.
Varga G, Erces D, Fazekas B, Fulop M, Kovacs T, Kaszaki J, et al. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism decreases motility and inflammatory activation in the early phase of acute experimental colitis in the rat. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010; 22: 217–225.
Lugo-Huitron R, Blanco-Ayala T, Ugalde-Muniz P, Carrillo-Mora P, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Silva-Adaya D, et al. On the antioxidant properties of kynurenic acid: Free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011; 33: 538–547.
Moroni F, Cozzi A, Sili M, Mannaioni G. Kynurenic acid: a metabolite with multiple actions and multiple targets in brain and periphery. J Neural Transm. 2012; 119: 133–139.
Igari T, Tsuchizawa M. Tryptophan metabolism in the synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1969; 99: 73–80.
Zgrajka W, Turska M, Rajtar G, Majdan M, Parada-Turska J. Kynurenic acid in synovial fluid and serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 2013; in press.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Medicine Strategy 2002– 2005, Geneva: WHO. 2002.
World Health Organization (WHO). Traditional Medicine Fact sheet No 134., 2008: Retrieved from: fs134/en/.
Turski MP, Turska M, Zgrajka W, Kuc D, Turski WA. Presence of kynurenic acid in food and honeybee products. Amino Acids. 2009; 36: 75–80.
Parada-Turska J, Rzeski W, Zgrajka W, Majdan M, Kandefer-Szerszen M, Turski W. Kynurenic acid, an endogenous constituent of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, inhibits proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro. Rheumatol Int. 2006; 26: 422–426.
Turski MP, Turska M, Zgrajka W, Bartnik M, Kocki T, Turski WA. Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants. Planta Med. 2011; 77: 858–864.