Fusaria are microscopic filamentous fungi which are spread in soil, in various organic substrates, and include more than 80 phytopathogenic species which are predominantly hosted by cereals, fruits and vegetables. Many of these species, under certain conditions, are capable of synthesizing secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. At present, various substances are used for their elimination and one of the solutions appears to be essential oils. In the presented study, the antifungal activity of essential oils was researched in vitro.

Material and methods:
In this study, two standard fungal isolates Fusarium graminearum CCM F-683 and Fusarium graminearum CCM 8244 (Brno, Czech Republic) were used. The antifungal effect of 6 tested essential oils (Syzygium aromaticum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, Hyssopus officinalis , Ocimum basilicum, Myristica fragrans) was determined using the broth microdilution method, which allows reading of the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). According to the results obtained, the growth inhibition of Fusarium graminearum was determined by assay for the inhibition of radial growth of the mycelium.

The inhibitory effects of thymus, oregano, basil, myristica, hyssop and syzygium essential oil (EO) on mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum CCM F-683 and CCM 8244 were investigated. The best antifungal activity against the both strains of Fusarium graminearum (37.4%; 40.7%) was demonstrated by Origanum vulgare EO at the concentration 100 µg/mL. Among the four tested oils, three (Syzygium aromaticum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare) achieved the best inhibitory effect (100%) at concentrations 500 µg/mL and 1000 µg/mL.

In the protection of plants against pathogenic fungi, essential oils appear to be a suitable substitute for synthetic chemicals.

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