Bacterial contamination of water in dental unit reservoirs
More details
Hide details
Department of Paedodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
Jolanta Szymańska   

Department of Paedodontics, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Staszica 11, 20-018 Lublin, Poland.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(1):137–140
The aim of this study was bacteriological assessment of water in dental unit reservoirs – concentration and composition of the aerobe and facultative anaerobe bacterial microflora. Reservoir water samples were taken from 25 units. Bacterial flora were determined with the plate culture method. Bacteria were identified with biochemical microtests: API 20E, API 20NE (bioMérieux, France) and GP2 MicroPlateTM (BIOLOG, USA). The concentration of total bacteria isolated from one site was 201,039 cfu/ml, on average; the minimum was 22,300 cfu/ml, and the maximum – 583,000 cfu/ml. The following bacteria were identified: Gram-negative bacteria – Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella spp., Ralstonia pickettii, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Gram-positive cocci – Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus lylae, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis ss novobiosepticus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.; actinomycetes – Streptomyces albus. The prevailing bacteria were: Ralstonia pickettii (96.46%), found in all the units. Sphingomonas paucimobilis (1.32%) and Brevundimonas vesicularis (1.07%) were the next most frequently occurring bacteria. Bacteria concentration in dental unit reservoirs reached excessive values, and the bacterial flora were composed of the bacteria characteristic for water supply systems, opportunistic pathogens, and bacteria of the oral cavity flora. Continuous microbiological monitoring of the DUWL water, including application of a disinfecting procedure, is necessary.
ADA Council on Scientifi c Affairs. Dental unit waterlines: Approaching the year 2000. J Am Dent Assoc 1999, 130, 1653-1664.
Barbeau J: Waterborn biofi lms and dentistry: the changing face ofminfection control. J Can Dent Assoc 2000, 66, 539-541.
Barbeau J, Gauthier C, Payment P: Biofi lms, infectious agents, and dental unit waterlines: a review. Can J Microbiol 1998, 44, 1019- 1028.
Barbeau J, Tanguay R, Faucher E, Avezard C, Trudel L, Côté L, Prévost AP: Multiparametric analysis of waterline contamination in dental units. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996, 62, 3954-3959.
Han XY, Andrade RA: Brevundimonas diminuta infections and its resistance to fl uoroquinoles. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005, 55, 853-859.
Karpay RI, Plamondon TJ, Mills SE, Dove SB: Combining periodic and continuous sodium hypochlorite treatment to control biofi lms in dental unit water system. J Am Dent Assoc 1999, 130, 957-965.
Krieg NR, Holt JG (Eds.): Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore/London 1984.
Łuczak M, Swoboda-Kopeć E (Eds): Wybrane Zagadnienia z Mikrobiologii Jamy Ustnej. Wydawnictwo Czelej, Lublin 2004.
Meiller TF, DePaola LG, Kelly JI, Baqui AAMA, Turng BF, Falkler AF Jr: Dental unit waterlines: biofi lms, disinfection and recurrence. J Am Dent Assoc 1999, 130, 67-72.
Monarca S, Garusi G, Gigola P, Spampinato l, Zani C, Sapelli PL: Decontaminatione del sistema idrico del riunito mediante disinfezione e fi ltrazione. Minerva Stomatol 2002, 51, 451-459.
Pankhurst CL, Johnson NW, Woods RG: Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: the scientifi c arguments. Int Dent J 1998, 48, 359-368.
Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia z dnia 4 września 2000 r. w sprawie warunków, jakim powinna odpowiadać woda do picia i na potrzeby gospodarcze, woda w kąpieliskach, oraz zasad sprawowania kontroli jakości wody przez organy Inspekcji Sanitarnej. Dziennik Ustaw z 2000 r., Nr 82, poz. 937.
Ryan MP, Pembroke JT, Adley CC: Ralstonia pickettii: a persistent Gram-negative nosocomial infectious organism. J Hosp Infect 2006, 62, 278-284.
Sacchetti R, Baldissarri A, De Luca G, Lucca P, Stampi S, Zanetti F: Microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines: comparison between ER:YAG laser and turbine lines. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006, 13, 275- 279.
Santiago JT, Huntington MK, Johnston AM, Williams JF: Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: short and long-term effects of fl ushing. Gen Dent 1994, 4, 528-535.
Sneath PHA, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (Eds): Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Hong Kong, London, Sydney 1986.
Souza-Gugelmin MCM, Lima CDT, Lima SNM, Ito IY: Microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. Braz Dent J 2003, 14, 55-57.
Szymańska J: Bacterial decontamination of DUWL biofi lm using Oxygenal 6. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006, 13, 163-167.
Szymańska J: Endotoxin level as a potential marker of concentration of Gram-negative bacteria in water effl uent from dental units and in dental aerosols. Ann Agric Environ Med 2005, 12, 229-232.
The Environmental Diagnostics Laboratory (EDL) at Pure Air Control Services (PACS): Microbial Glossary. www.pureaircontrols. com/glossary.html.
Tuttlebee CM, O’Donell MJ, Kean CT, Russell RJ, Sullivan DJ, Falkiner F, Coleman DC: Effective control of dental chair unit waterline biofi lm and marked reduction of bacterial contamination of output water using two peroxide-based disinfectants. J Hosp Infect 2002, 52, 192-205.
Walker RJ, Burke FJ, Miller CH, Palenik CJ: An investigation of microbial contamination of dental unit air and water lines. Int Dent J 2004, 54, 438-444.
Wertheim WA, Markovitz DM: Osteomyelitis and intervertebral discitis caused by Pseudomonas pickettii. J Clin Microbiol 1992, 30, 2506-2508.
Williams JF, Johnston AM, Johnson B, Huntington MK, Mackenzie CD: Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: prevalence, intensity, and microbiological characteristics. J Am Dent Assoc 1993, 124, 59-65.
Williams JF, Molinari JA, Andrews N: Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: origin and characteristics. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1996, 17, 538-540, 542, quiz 558.
Williams ST, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (Eds.): Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 4. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Hong Kong, London, Sydney 1989.