0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
RESEARCH PAPER
 
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
 
 

Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland

Hanna Mojska 1  ,  
 
1
Department of Metabolomics, National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland
2
Division of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW)
Ann Agric Environ Med 2016;23(3):456–461
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction and objective:
Acrylamide is a “probably human carcinogen” monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland.

Material and Methods:
The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg.

Results:
The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 – 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day.

Conclusions:
Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Hanna Mojska   
Department of Metabolomics, National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland
 
REFERENCES (30):
1. Hagmar L, Törnqvist M, Nordander C, Rosén I, Bruze M, Kautiainen A, et al. Health effects of occupational exposure to acrylamide using hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of internal dose. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001; 27 (4): 219–226.
2. He FS, Hang SL, Wang HL, Li G, Hang ZM, Li FL, et al. Neurological and electroneuromyographic assessment of the adverse effects of acrylamide on occupationally expose workers. Scand J Work Environ Heath. 1989; 15: 125–129.
3. Friedman MA, Duak LH, Stedham MA. A lifetime oncogenicity study in rats with acrylamide. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1995; 27: 95–105.
4. Johnson K, Gorzinski S, Bodnar K, Campbell R, Wolf C, Friedman M, et al. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of Fisher 344 rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986; 85: 154–168.
5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Acrylamide, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Some industrials chemicals, vol. 60. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 1994, 389–433 http://www.iarc.fr/ENG/Databases/index.php.
6. SNFA. Swedish National Food Administration. Information about acrylamide in food. 2002 http://www.slv.se/engdefault.asp.
7. Taeymans D, Wood J, Ashby P, Blank I, Studer A, Stadler RH, et al. A review of acrylamide: An industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004; 44: 323–347.
8. Konings EJM, Baars AJ, van Klaveren JD, Spanjer MC, Rensen PM, Hiemstra M, et al. Acrylamide exposure from foods of the Dutch population and an assessment of the consequent risk. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003; 41: 1569–1579.
9. Normandin L, Bouchard M, Ayotte P, Blanchet C, Becalski A, Bonvalot Y, et al. Dietary exposure to acrylamide in adolescents from Canadian urban center. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 57: 75–83.
10. Sirot V, Hommet F, Tard A, Leblanc JC. Dietary acrylamide exposure of the French population: Results of the second French Total Diet Study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012; 50: 889–894.
11. Hagmar L, Wirfält E, Paulsson B, Törnqvist M. Differences in hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide in the general population with respect to dietary intake, smoking habits and gender. Mutat Res. 2005; 580: 157–165.
12. deBethizy JD, Borgerding MF, Doolittle DJ, Robinson JH, McManus KT, Rahn BS, et al. Chemical and biological studies of a cigarette that heats rather than burns tobacco. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990; 30: 755–763.
13. Diekmann J, Wittig A, Stabbert R. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of acrylamide and acetamide in cigarette mainstream smoke after on-column injection. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008; 46, August: 659–663.
14. Moldoveanu SC, Gerardi AR. Acrylamide analysis in tobacco, alternative tobacco products, and cigarette smoke. J Chromatogr Sci. 2011; 49: 234–242.
15. White EL, Uhrig MS, Johnson TJ, Gordon BM, Hicks RD, Borgerding MF, et al. Quantitative determination of selected compounds in a Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarette smoke by multidimensional gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr Sci. 1990; 28, August: 393–399.
16. Xie S, Wang K, Zhu R, Zhu X, Wie W. Solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography for the determination of acrylamide in mainstream cigarette smoke. Mendeleev Commun. 2009; 19: 344–345.
17. Millward Brown, Target Group Index (TGI) project, January 2004 – March 2011 (unpublished data).
18. PN-ISO 3402:2002 Tobacco and tobacco products. Atmosphere for conditioning and testing.
19. PN-ISO 3308:2002 Cigarettes. Routine analytical cigarette smoking machine. Definitions and standard conditions.
20. Mojska H, Gielecińska I, Stoś K. Determination of acrylamide level in commercial baby foods and an assessment of infant dietary exposure. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012; 50: 2722–2728.
21. Global Adult Tobacco Survey – GATS. http://www.wsse.webserwer.pl/UserFiles/wsse/File/OSW_N_STR/ tob3cit_v/GATS.pdf.
22. Schmeltz I, Hoffmann D. Nitrogen-containing compounds in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Chem Rev. 1977; 77: 295–311.
23. Central Statistical Office. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland. Warsaw, LXX1, 2011.
24. Strasser AA, Pickworth WB, Paterson F, Lerman C. Smoking topography predict abstinence following treatment with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004; 13: 1800:1804.
25. Hammond D, Fong GT, Cummings KM, Hyland A. Smoking topography, brand switching, and nicotine delivery: results from an in vivo study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14: 1370–1375.
26. Kassel JD, Greenstein JE, Evatt DP, Wardle MC, Yates MC, Veilleux JC, et al. Smoking topography in response to denicatinized and highyield nicotine cigarettes in adolescent smokers. J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40: 54–60.
27. Czogała J, Goniewicz MŁ, Czubek A, Koszowski B, Sobczak A. Jak naprawdę pali palacz – wyniki wstępne badań topografii palenia populacji palaczy w Polsce. Przegl Lek. 2008; 65: 657–662.
28. Hammond D, Collishaw NE, Callard C. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity. Lancet 2006; 367: 781:787.
29. German Federal Environment Agency: Acrylamide and human biomonitoring. 2008. http://www.umweltdaten.de/gesundheit-e/monitor/acrylamide_and_hbm.pdf.
30. Mojska H, Gielecińska I, Szponar L, Ołtarzewski M. Estimation of the dietary acrylamide exposure of the Polish population. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48: 2090–2096.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966