REVIEW PAPER
Toxicity of parasites and their unconventional use in medicine
 
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1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce, Poland
2
The Professor Edward Lipinski School of Economics, Law and Medical Sciences in Kielce, Kielce, Poland
3
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
4
Department of Medical Microbiology and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Grzegorz Wróbel   

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Jan Kochanowski University, St. IX Wieków Kielce 19, 25-317, Kielce, Poland
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Over 300 species of parasites can possibly be passed on humans. Most of the parasitic infections are defined based on their pathogenicity; however, some positive effects of a parasite existence within the human body have recently been suggested. Beneficial outcomes of parasite infections might result from the production and release of metabolites, modification of host immune response or products uptake of the host.

Objective:
The aim of the study was a comprehensive analysis of a wide range of effects of parasites on the human body, including an overview of the toxic and positive effects.

State of knowledge:
In the light of the latest research presenting the unconventional use of parasites in medicine, the widely understood of their impact on the human body can also be considered in a positive context. Clinical cases from diseases caused by the toxic effects of parasites, as described in recent years, indicate that the problem of parasitic infections still persists. Despite a great deal of knowledge about the toxic effects of parasites on the human organism and, above all, despite the improvement in sanitary conditions, there is a resurgence of parasitic infections, as evidenced, e.g. by the examples presented in this review.

Conclusions:
The examples of positive effects of parasites presented so far give hope for the future in terms of fighting many diseases for which pharmacological treatment has not yet brought a positive effect. A better understanding of those processes might lead to the development of new methods of unconventional medical treatment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported under the program of the Minister of Science and Higher Education under name “Regional Initiative of Excellence in 2019-2022 project number: 024/ RID/2018/19, financing amount: 11.999.000,00 PLN.
 
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