Online first

The condition of mineralized tooth tissue of the inhabitants of Szackie Lake District (Ukraine) with regard to the content of silver and chosen microelements in drinking water and the soil

Ewa Wolańska 1  ,  
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Medical University in Lublin
The Daniła Halicki National Medical University in Lviv
Department of Cultivation and Fertilization of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Introduction and objective:
The aim of the study is to evaluate the mineralization tooth tissues in the inhabitants of Melniki village Szackie, Lake District, Ukraine, with regard to silver content and chosen macro-elements in the soil, tap water, and the water in Pisoczno Lake located in the vicinity of village.

Material and Methods:
The macro-elements, silver ions contained in the lake, tap water and soil were examined. 125 people aged 12–73, indigenous inhabitants of Melniki village, were qualified for dental examinations. The research took into account the distance between the place of residence and Pisoczno Lake as a source of silver ions, dividing the examined patients into 2 groups: A) living at a distance less than 2,500 m from the lake, and B) living at a distance more than 2.500 m from the lake.

In area A, significantly higher contents of phosphorus and potassium were detected, while in the soil of area B there was more Ca and Mg with 3 times higher number of Mg ions. A high concentration of Ag ions was observed in both Pisoczno Lake and tap water. The severity of caries expressed by D3MFT number was 4.18 in the group aged 12–16 living in area A, and 4.24 for the inhabitants of area B. The mean value of D3MFT for the group aged 32- 45 living in area A equalled 21.58, while for area B it was 21.19. The severity of caries expressed by the mean D3MFT value in the examined group of 46–73-year-olds was 24.60 for area A, and 23.80 for area B. The observed differences were not statistically significant.

The high value of D3MFT recorded in the inhabitants of Melniki village indicates the poor condition of mineralized tooth tissues. The fact that the contents of macro-elements in the soil and drinking water increased, together with the distance from the Pisoczno Lake shoreline, did not affect the oral health of the indigenous inhabitants. No impact of silver ions contained in the lake and tap water on the condition of mineralized tooth tissue was detected in the examined group of inhabitants of Szackie Lake District.

Ewa Wolańska   
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Medical University in Lublin
1. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. Biogeochemia Pierwiastków Śladowych. PWN 1999; Warszawa, 364.
2. http://celfit.manifo.com/blog/wplyw-makro-i-mikroelementow-na-organizm-czlowieka.
3. Szeleszczuk Ł, Kuras M. Importance of calcium in human metabolism and the factors influencing its bio-availability in the diet. Biul. Wydz. Farm. WUM. 2014; 3: 16–22.
4. Hamama HH, Yiu CK, Burrow MF. Effect of silver diamine fluoride and potassium iodide on residual bacteria in dentinal tubules. Aust Dent J. 2015; 60(1): 80–87.
5. Lansdown AB. Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr Probl Dermatol.2006; 33: 17–34.
6. Emmanuel R, Palanisamy S, Chen SM, Chellaurai K, Padmavathy S, Saravanan M, Prakash P, Ajmal AM,Al-Hemaid FM. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015; 1 (56): 374–379.
7. Bugla-Płoskońska G, Oleszkiewicz A. Biological activity of silver and its application in medicine. Re-cultivation of soils contaminated by heavy metals in the literature. Problemy Nauk Biologicznych. 2007; 56(1–2): 274–275.
8. Chałas R, Wójcik-Chęcińska I, Woźniak MJ, Grzonka J, Święszkowski W, Kurzydłowski KJ. Dental plaque as a biofilm – a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent. Post Hig Med Dośw [online] 2015; 69: 1140–1148.
9. Maciejewska A. Re-cultivation of soils contaminated by heavy metals in the literature. 2003; 539– W: „Obieg Pierwiastków w Przyrodzie” (B. Gworek,J. Misiak, red.). Monografia Tom II. Dział Wydawnictw IOŚ, Warszawa 2003.
10. Domańska-Sienkiewicz A. Integrated Functional-Spacial Conception of Euro-region Bug by 2020. 2014; 92.
11. Acar, B, Paksoy M, Türkmen Ö, Seymen M. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse condition. Afric. J. Biotechnol. 2008; 7(24): 4450–4453.
12. Sady W. Fertilization of field vegetables 2004; Wyd. Plantpress 17–25.
13. Gąsiorek M, Nicia P. The content of selected macroelements in fen soils of different trophic status. Water-Environment-Rural-Areas. 2010;10 (1,29): 33–39.
14. Sammel A, Niedźwiecki E. The content of macro- and microelemnts in muckous soils within the odra floodplain. Water-Environment-Rural-Areas. 2006; 6 (2,18): 293–304.
15. Sytnyk Y, Osadcha N, Shevchenko P, Zabytivskyi Y. Ecological and toxicological assessment of the hydrochemical processes tendency in pisochne lake of shatsk park. Visnyk of Lviv Univ. Biology series. 2009; 50: 59–66.
16. Netrobchuk I. Analysis of the Shats’k Lakes State of Water. http://bo0k.net/index.php? p=achapter&bid=15400&chapter=1.
17. Gogacz K. Chemical and microbiological analysis of waters in Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lake District and Zemborzyce Arificial Lake from both open reservoirs and house water intakes. Lublin. 70, 74–76.
18. Ministry of Health Decree from March 29, 2007 on the quality of drinking water. Bulletin of Acts and Decrees no. 61, item 417.
19. Kacaper K, Kowalska-Górlaska M, Senze M. Silver in the water of the Czerwona River (zachodniopomorskie voivodship). Interdyscyplinarne zagadnienia w inżynierii i ochronie środowiska. 2012; 2: 239–244.
20. Burns J,Hollands K. Nano Silver Fluoride for preventing.Evid. Based.Dent.2015;16(1): 8–9.
21. Bacciarelli A, Kołodziejczyk M, Rybicki E. Influence of silver nanoparticles on human functioning. Dyes, Additional Aids. 2008; 4: 99–113.
22. Pokrowiecki R, Mielczarek A. Selected aspects of silver nano-particles application in medical. Borgis – Nowa Stomatologia. 2012; 3: 117–121.
23. Żelazowska R, Pasternak K. Noble metals: silver [Ag], gold [Au] and platinum [Pt] in biology and medicine. Bromat. Chem. Toksykol. 2007; 40(2): 205–209.
24. http://www.mz.gov.pl/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/24879/Wyniki-badan-epidemiologicznych-2012.pdf.
25. Bachanek T, Wolańska–Klimkiewicz E, Nakonieczna–Rudnicka M. Results of oral health examination in the children aged 12. Monitoring of oral health of Polish population in the years 2013–2015. 2014; 28–30.
26. www.mah.se/CAPP/Country-Oral-Health-Profiles/According-to-Alphabetical/Global-caries-map-2013–2014.
27. World Health Organization. WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank 2011. WHO, Geneva.p.34./www.mah.se/PageFiles/50259/Krabi%20Conference%20Book-2.pdf.
28. Zander A, Sivaneswaran S, Skinner J, Byun R, Jalaludin B. Risk factors for dental caries in small rural and regional Australian communities. Rural Remote Health. 2013; 13(3): 2492.
29. http://www.mz.gov.pl/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/24878/monitoring_ju_2011.pdf.
30. Olczak–Kowalczyk D. Results of oral health examination in the children aged 3,10,15. Monitoring of oral health of Polish population in the years 2013–2015. Warszawa 2015.
31. Hilt A, Rybarczyk-Townsend E, Wochna-Sobańska M.Condition of teeth of middle school children from Łódz voivodship.Epidemiological Review. 2014; 68: 143–146.
32. Eustaguio MV, Montiel JM, Almerich JM. Oral health survey of the adult population of the Valentia region (Spain). Med Oral Patol Cir Bucal. 2010; 15(3): 538–544.
33. Urzua I, Mendoza C, Arteaga O, Rodrigez G, Cabello R, Faleiros S, Carvajal P, Muňoz A, Espinoza I, Aranda W, Gamonal J. Dental caries prevalence and tooth loss in chilean adult population: first national dental examination survey. Int J Dent. 2012; 2012: 810170.
34. Alvarez L,Liberman J, Abreu S, Mangarelli C, Correa MB, Demarco FF, Lorenzo S, Nascimento GG. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Cad Saude Publica.2015; 31(8): 1663–1672.
35. Carneiro RM, da Silva DD, de Sousa Mda L, Wada RS. Oral health of institutionalized elderly in the eastern zone of São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2005; 21(6): 709–1716.