RESEARCH PAPER
Seasonal variation of Ganoderma spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland
 
More details
Hide details
1
University of Szczecin, Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Szczecin, Poland
2
West Pomeranian University of Technology, Faculty of Food Sciences and Fisheries, Szczecin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(1):6–10
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
According to recent studies, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of Ganoderma spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008–2010. Ganoderma spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between Ganoderma and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of Ganoderma spore concentration in peripheral districts.
 
REFERENCES (22)
1.
Levetin E. Studies on airborne basidiospores. Aerobiologia. 1990; 6: 177–180.
 
2.
Hawksworth DL, Sutton BC, Ainsworth G. Dictionary of the fungi. 7 th ed. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, 1983.
 
3.
Gottlieb AM, Ferrer E, Wright JE. r DNA analyses an aid to the taxonomy of species of Ganoderma. Mycol Res. 2000; 104(9): 1033–1045.
 
4.
Hasnain SM, Al-Frayh A, Khatija F, Al-Sedairy S. Airborne Ganoderma basidiospores in a country with desert environment. Grana 2004; 43: 111–115.
 
5.
Gregory PH, Hirst JM. Possible role of basidiospores as airborne allergens. Nature. 1952; 170: 414.
 
6.
Sprenger JD, Altman LC, O’Neil CE, Lehrer SB, Ayars GH. Skin test reactivity to basidiospores in adults in Seattle with respiratory allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986; 77: 200.
 
7.
Singh AB, Gupta SK, Pereira BM, Prakash D. Sensitization to Ganoderma lucidum in patients with respiratory allergy in India. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995; 25: 440–447.
 
8.
Tarlo SM, Bell B, Srinivasen J, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Human sensitization to Ganoderma antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1979; 64(1): 43–49.
 
9.
Rodriquez-Rajo F, Iglesias I, Jato V. Variation assessment of airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores at different bioclimatical conditions. Mycol Res. 2005; 109: 497–507.
 
10.
StatSoft Inc. STATISTICA 2011 (data analysis software system), version 10.
 
11.
Grinn-Gofroń A, Strzelczak A. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air. International Journal of Biometeorology 2011; 55: 235–241.
 
12.
Craig RL, Levetin E. Multi-year study of Ganoderma aerobiology. Aerobiologia. 2000; 16: 75–81.
 
13.
Oliveira M, Ribeiro H, Delgado JL, Abreu I. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanization level. International Journal of Biometeorology 2009; 53: 61–73.
 
14.
Cutten AEC, Hasnain SM, Segedin BP, Bai TR, McKay EJ. The basidiomycete Ganoderma and asthma: collection, quantitation, and immunogenity of the spores. N Z Med J 1998; 101: 361–363.
 
15.
Kasprzyk I, Rzepowska B, Wasylów M. Fungal spores in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (South-East Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004; 11: 285–289.
 
16.
Stępalska D, Wołek J. Variation in fungal spore concentrations of selected taxa associated to weather conditions in Cracow, Poland, in 1997. Aerobiologia 2005; 21: 43–52.
 
17.
Calderon C, Lacey J, McCartney HA, Rosas I. Seasonal and diurnal variation of airborne basidiomycete spore concentrations in Mexico City. Grana 1995; 34: 260–268.
 
18.
Lopez M, Salvaggio EJ. Climate-Weather-Air pollution. – In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF (ed.). Allergy: Pronciple and practice, 2nd ed. CV Mocby, St. Louis, 1983. pp. 1203–1214.
 
19.
Hasnain SM. Influence of meteorological factors on the air spora. Grana 1993; 32: 184–188.
 
20.
Ho H-M, Rao CY, Hsu H-H, Chiu Y-H, Liu Ch-M, Chao HJ. Characteristic and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment 2005; 39: 5839–5850.
 
21.
McCracken FL. Factors affecting the spore release of Ganoderma applanatus. J MI Acad Sci. 1987; 32: 66–60.
 
22.
Burge HA, Otten JA. Fungi. In: Macher J (ed.). Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. American Conference of Govermental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1999.pp. 19.1–19.13.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966