Prevalence of cigarette smoking among adult population in eastern Poland
More details
Hide details
Department for Post-Graduate Education, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
Independent Laboratory of Family Physician Education, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
The National Observatory for Health and Work Safety of Agricultural Workers, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
Laboratory of Functional Diagnostics, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
Department of Family Medicine, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland
Department of Family and Community Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2010;17(1):133–138
Cigarette smoking is the strongest modifiable factor, which shortens the life span and deteriorates the quality of life. It increases the risk of development of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases. The objective of the study was evaluation of the prevalence of cigarette smoking among the adult population of the Lublin Region, and investigation of the relationship between nicotinism and respondents` place of residence, and other selected socio-economic factors. Data concerning the cigarette smoking habit was obtained from 3,993 people - 2,447 females and 1,546 males; 23.0 percent of respondents in the study were smokers - 35.6 percent of males and 15.1 percent of females. The percentage of male smokers was similar in rural and urban areas. Urban females were smokers more often than those living in rural areas. A decrease was noted in the difference which has been observed to-date between the percentage of urban and rural female smokers. The highest percentage of smokers occurred among the population aged 41-50, while the lowest - among the youngest and the oldest respondents. The percentage of smoking farmers was lower than that of respondents performing non-agricultural occupations, also among rural inhabitants. Those who were occupationally active were smokers more frequently than those not engaged in occupational activity. The lowest percentage of smokers was noted among respondents who had the highest education level, while the highest percentage was observed among those who had vocational education.
Lech Panasiuk   
Department for Post-Graduate Education, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
1. Ahrens W, Jockel KH, Patzak W, Elsner G: Alcohol, smoking and occupational factors in cancer of larynx: a case control study. Am J Ind Med 1991, 20, 477–493.
2. American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2004. American Cancer Society, Atlanta 2004.
3. Baumann M, Spitz E, Guillemin E, Ravaud JE, Choquet M, Falssard B, Chau N, Group L: Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study. Int J Health Geogr 2007, 6, 50–53.
4. Berthiller J, Sasco AJ: Smoking (active and passive) in relation on fertility medically assisted procreation and pregnancy. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2005, 34 (Spec. N o 1), 3S47–3S54.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Tobacco use in the United States. Available from:
6. Crocetti E, Miccinesi G, Paci E, Cislaghi C: What is hidden behind urban and semiurban cancer incidence and mortality differences in central Italy? Tumori 2002, 88, 257–261.
7. Ferlay J, Gautier P, Boniol M, Heanue M, Colombet M, Boyle P: Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 2007, 18, 581–592.
8. Gilmore A, Pomerleau J, McKee M, Rose R, Haerpfer CW, Rotman D, Tumanov S: Prevalence of smoking in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union: results from the living conditions, lifestyle and health study. Am J Public Health 2004, 94, 2177–2187.
9. Goldstein L, Adams R, Alberts MJ, Appel LJ, Brass LM, Bushnell CD, Culebras A, DeGraba TJ, Gorelick PB, Guyton JR, Hart RG, Howard G, Kelly-Hayes M, Nixon JV, Sacco RL: Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2006, 37, 1583–1633.
10. Helakorpi SA, Martelin TP, Torppa JO, Patja KM, Kiiskinen UO, Vartiainen EA, Uutela AK. Did the Tobacco Control Act Amendement in 1995 affect daily smoking in Finland? Effects of a restrictive workplace smoking policy. J Public Health 2008, 30(4), 407–414.
11. Helasoja W, Lahelma E, Prättälä RS, Patja KM, Klumbiene J, Pudule I, Kasmel A: Determinants of daily smoking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland in 1994–2002. Scand J Public Health 2006, 34(4), 353–362.
12. Jha P, Peto R, Zatonski W, Boreham J, Jarvis MJ, Lopez AD: Social inequalities in male mortality, and in male mortality from smoking: indirect estimation from national death rates in England and Wales, Poland, and North America. Lancet 2006, 368, 367–370.
13. Kaleta D, Makowiec-Dąbrowska T, Polańska K, Dziadkowska-Zaborszczyk E, Drygas W: Tobacco smoking and other negative lifestyle behaviors among economically active individuals. Med Pr 2009, 60, 7–14 (in Polish).
14. Liem JJ, Kozyrskyj AL, Benoit CM, Becker AB: Asthma is not enough: continuation of smoking among parents with an asthmatic child. Can Respir J 2007, 14(6), 349–353.
15. Lukas W, Godycki-Ćwirko M, Mierzecki A: Prophylactic actions in non-contagious diseases on the level of primary health care in Poland. Zabrze 2009 (in Polish).
16. Maciejewski J, Bednarek M, Korzyński D, Zieliński J: Smoking habits in a family physician’s practice. Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2009, 77, 248–255 (in Polish).
17. Maniecka-Bryła I, Maciak A, Kowalska A, Bryła M: Prevalence of tobacco smoking among participants of the cardiovascular prophylactic program. Med Pr 2009, 60, 109–115 (in Polish).
18. Mierzecki A, Gąsiorowski J, Miączyńska M: Brief antitobacco intervention as a tool for family doctor (general practitioners). Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2002, 70, 216–222 (in Polish).
19. Morshed K, Szymański M, Siwiec K, Gołąbek W: Laryngeal cancer in farmers from Lublin region of Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2008, 15, 13–19.
20. National Health Programme for the years 2007–2015. Annex to Decision No. 90/2007 by the Cabinet of 15 May 2007.
21. Nikodemowicz E: Environmental pollution with tobacco smoke – a threat to human health. Principles for prevention of tobacco smoking. Folia Med Cracov 1993, 34(1–4), 179–186 (in Polish).
22. Panasiuk L, Wdowiak L, Paprzycki P, Lukas W: Occurrence of overweight and obesity among adult rural population in eastern Poland. Relationship between obesity and selected socio-economic factors. Ann Agric Environ Med 2008, 15, 149–152.
23. Piekoszowski W, Florek E: Tobacco in fi gures at the beginning of the new century. Przegl Lek 2006, 63, 823–826.
24. Polakowska M, Piotrowski W, Tykarski A, Drygas W, Wyrzykowski B, Pająk A, Kozakiewicz A, Rywik S: Tobacco smoking habit among Polish population. Results of the Multicentre All-Polish Studies of Population Health – WOBASZ programme. Kardiol Pol 2005, 63, S626–S631.
25. Rehm J, Room R, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Graham K, Rehn N, Sempos CT, Frick U, Jernigan D: Comparative quantifi cation of health risks. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CIL (Eds): Global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. WHO, Geneva 2004.
26. Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, Mariotto A, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK (Eds): SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2001. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda 2004. Available from:
27. Teo KK, Ounpuu S, Hawken S, Pandey MR, Valentin V, Hunt D, Diaz R, Rashed W, Freeman R, Jiang L, Zhang X, Yusuf S: INTER-HEART Study Investigators. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarcxtion in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study. Lancet 2006, 368, 647–658.
28. Thompson NC, Chaudhuri R, Livingston E: Asthma and cigarette smoking. Eur Resp J 2004, 24, 822–833.
29. Trzpil L, Gutowska J, Lusawa A, Raciborski F, Tomaszewska A, Borowicz j, Samel-Kowalik P, Walkiewicz A, Jakubik N, Marszałkowska J, Samoliński B: Comparison of the frequency of tobacco smoking in urban and rural areas – preliminary report of the study: Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2007, 88 (Supl. 3), 67–69.
30. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation’s Leading Cause of Death. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 2003.
31. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Offi ce on Smoking and Health, Rockville 2004.
32. Völzke H, Neuhauser H, Moebus S, Baumert J, Berger K, Stang A, Ellert U, Werner A, Döring A: Urban-rural disparities in smoking behaviour in Germany. BMC Public Helath 2006, 6, 146.
33. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas E, Mc Queen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L: Effect of potentially modifable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004, 364, 937–952.
34. Wdowiak A, Wiktor H, Wdowiak L: Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and neonatal Heath. Ann Agric Environ Med 2009, 16, 309–312.
35. World Health Organization (WHO): Heath for all database (HFADB). WHO Regional Offi ce for Europe, Copenhagen 2007. Available from:
36. Wójcik A, Brzeski Z, Borzęcki A: Cigarette smoking habit among inhabitants of selected communes in the Lublin Region. Przegl Lek 2006, 63, 1164–1165 (in Polish).
37. Zdrojewski T, Bandosz P, Szpakowski P, Konarski R, Manikowski A, Wołkiewicz E, Jakubowski Z, Łysiak-Szydłowska W, Bautembach S, Wyrzykowski B: Prevalence of main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in Poland. Results of the NATPOL PLUS study. Kardiol Pol 2004, 61, 1–26.